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Chapter 16

PSYB45H3 Chapter 16: PSYB45 Chapter 16

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Jessica Dere

PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello PSYB45 Chapter 16: Transferring Behaviour to New Settings and Making It Last – Generality of Behaviour Change Generality  Training situation: Setting in which the behaviour is initially strengthened  Target situation: The setting in which we want the behaviour to occur  A behaviour change is said to have generality to the extent that the following occur o Stimulus generalization: The trained behaviour transfers from the training situation(s) to the target situation(s), which is usually the natural environment o Response generalization: Training leads to the development of new behaviour that hasn’t been specifically trained o Behaviour Maintenance: The trained behaviour persists in the target situation(s) over time  The term situation may refer to particular stimuli or to particular settings, or both Programming Generality of Operant Behaviour  Stimulus generalization refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus/situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus/situation o The more similar the training and target situations are, the more stimulus generalization there will be between them  There are 4 main strategies for programming operant stimulus generalization o Train in the target situation  First effort to program stimulus generalization  Make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target situation in as many ways as possible  Train in the target situation itself o Very the training conditions  If behaviours are brought under the control of a wide variety of stimuli during training then the probability of some of those stimuli being present in the target situation, and therefore the probability of the generalization, increases o Program common stimuli  Develop the behaviour to specific stimuli that are present in the training settings, and then ensuring that those stimuli are in the target settings PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello  A useful strategy for programming common stimuli is to bring the desired behaviour under the control of instructions/rules that an individual can rehearse in novel situations  When the above occurs, the individual is said to be using a self-mediated physical or verbal stimulus o Train sufficient stimulus exemplars  The members of a common-element stimulus class are often referred to as exemplars of that class  Training sufficient stimulus exemplars  One of the most valuable generalization tactics for programming generality  Response generalization refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus/situation, and the effect of another response becoming more probably in the presence of that or similar stimuli or situations  Response generalization occurs for several reasons o The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between them o Learned response generalization can occur if widely different responses share a common characteristic o An individual might show response generalization because he or she has learned functionally equivalent responses to a stimulus  There are 3 strategies for programming response generalization o Train sufficient response exemplars o Vary the acceptable responses during training o Capitalize on behavioural momentum  Behavioural momentum is analogous to the concept of momentum in physics  The theory of behavioural momentum states that once a behaviour is initiated in the presence of a specific stimulus and is occurring at a high rate in the presence of that stimulus, that behaviour and similar behaviours will tend to occur at a high rate in the presence of that stimulus unless some disrupting influence occurs  Programming operant behaviour maintenance  4 general approaches to the problem of achieving behaviour maintenance o Use behavioural trapping: Allow natural contingencies of reinforcement to take effect PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello
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