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Chapter 18

PSYB45H3 Chapter 18: PSYB45 Chapter 18

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello PSYB45 Chapter 18 – Antecedent Control: Modeling, Physical Guidance, and Situational Inducement Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control  Behaviour modification programs should include instructions in the form of rules that can be followed easily o But sometimes instructions aren’t enough so it’s necessary to introduce other types of antecedent stimuli  Modeling, physical guidance, situational inducement Modeling  Modeling: A procedure by which a sample of a given behaviour is demonstrated to an individual to induce that individual to engage in a similar behaviour o Like rules, modeling can be pretty powerful  Like with rules, the general public uses modeling so commonly that few people think of it as a behaviour modification procedure o Parents use it unsystematically, but in general effectively, to teach politeness, caring, language, etc. to their children o Modeling affects the behaviour of individuals of all ages, not just young children  What determines whether we will imitate the behaviour of a model? o History of reinforcement and punishment for imitating others o Because each of us has had different experiences, the specific variables that determine who we imitate vary somewhat from person to person  Rules that influence the effectiveness of modeling as a behaviour modification technique o Arrange for peers to be models  People are more likely to imitate those who are similar to them in various ways  Friends and peers are more likely to be imitated than are strangers or individuals outside one’s peer group  Video modeling  Involves showing video-recorded displays of a typically developing child or children emitting target responses  Effective for teaching a child with autism to emit those target responses  Video modeling is proven to be as effective as peer-mediated modeling o Arrange for the modeled behaviour to be seen to be effective  You are more likely to initiate someone whose behaviour produces desired consequences PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello  High-status and prestigious people are more likely to be imitated than individuals of lower status/prestige  Individuals of high status frequently emit effective behaviours o Use multiple models  The number of people modeling a particular behaviour is a factor in determining whether that behaviour will be imitated  An increase in the # of models is an increase in the number of stimulus exemplars, which increases stimulus generalization of the behaviour o Combine modeling with rules  Behavioural rehearsal or role-playing: Technique in which a client rehearses particular behaviours (plays a role) in a practice setting to increase the likelihood that the client will follow those behaviours appropriately in the real world  A combination of instructions, modeling, behavioural rehearsal, and consequence management has been used to enhance performance in a variety of areas (ex. Social skills training) Guidelines for Using Modeling 1. Select models who are friends or peers of the learner and who are seen by the learner as competent individuals with status or prestige 2. Use more than one model 3. The complexity of the modeled behaviour should be suitable for the behavioural level of the learner 4. Combine rules with modeling 5. Have the learner watch the model p
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