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Chapter 21

PSYB45H3 Chapter 21: PSYB45 Chapter 21

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Jessica Dere

PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello PSYB45 Chapter 21 – Direct Behavioural Assessment: What to Record and How Characteristics of Behaviour to Be Recorded  Topography (of a response): The specific movements involved in making the response o Picture prompts are sometimes useful for helping observers to identify variations in the topography of a response  Amount of behaviour  Two measures o Frequency (or rate) of behaviour: The number of instances of a behaviour that occur in a given period of time  Devices such as PDAs, smartphones, and tablet computers, with appropriate apps obtained online or custom-made, can be used to record  More than one behaviour  The behaviour of more than one individual  The times at which each instance of behaviour occurs  A frequency graph or a cumulative graph can be used to measure this  A cumulative graph is usually preferred over a frequency graph when comparing two or more behaviours or conditions and when the differences are small o Relative duration of behaviour: The length of time that the behaviour occurs within some period  Keeping track of the relative duration of some activity over successive sessions or days  Tabulate and present these data for effective visual display on a combined data sheet/graph  Intensity of behaviour o Assessments of intensity often utilize instrumentation o Measures of force are common in the skills involved in various sports  Stimulus control of behaviour o Stimulus control: The degree of correlation between a stimulus and a response o Example of an assessment instrument that evaluates stimulus control  Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA-R), which assess the ease with which those with intellectual disabilities are able to learn six stimulus-discrimination levels  Level 1: Imitation PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello  Level 2: Position discrimination  Level 3: Visual discrimination  Level 4: Visual identity match-to-sample discrimination  Level 5: Visual non-identity match-to-sample discrimination  Level 6: Auditory-visual combined discrimination o Behaviour modification programs concerned with the development of preverbal and verbal skills are typically preceded by behaviour assessments of the stimulus control of the client’s verbal behaviour  Latency of behaviour: The time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the beginning of that behaviour o Like duration, latency is assessed using timers, stopwatches, or clocks  Quality of behaviour o Example: Teacher describes the quality of a child’s handwriting as good, average, or poor Strategies for Recording Behaviour  Continuous recording: (aka. Event-frequency) The recording of every instance of a behaviour during a designated observation period o Commonly used when successive responses are quite similar in duration  Interval recording: Logs the behaviour as either occurring or not during short intervals of equal duration (ex. Intervals of 10 seconds) during the specified observation period (ex. 30 minutes) o Partial-interval recording: Records the target behaviour a maximum of once per interval regardless of how many times the behaviour occurs during each interval and regardless of the behaviour’s duration o Whole-interval recording: Denotes the target behaviour as occurring during an interval only if the behaviour persists throughout the entire interval  Less commonly used than partial-interval recording o Behaviour recorded with either a partial-interval or whole-interval recording procedure is
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