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Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 1 ~ What is Applied Behavior Analysis Behavior: refers to anything a person does in response to either an internal or external event Overt Behavior: open to view or observation o Verbal Behaviors: actions that involve the use of language o Motor Behaviors: actions that involve body movement, without language involved Covert Behaviors: not viewable or openly shown, aka “private events” Diagnosis: used by therapists to classify clients e.g. severe depression or schizophrenia o Cons: Imprecise, do not always indicate what specific behaviors need to be changed o Outcomes of behavior are NOT behaviors Inborn Behaviors aka Reflexes: Innate inherited behaviors that help the baby survive o Rooting Reflex: the baby automatically turns its head to an object touching its cheek o Sucking Reflex: the baby automatically starts sucking on small round object nearby Behaviors developed after birth depends on both: o Heredity: refers to the speed and time when an individual matures and grows physically; therefore, determines when motor behaviors are possible & a foundation or tendency to develop certain behavioral problems o Experience: learning throughout life and developing certain behaviors  Learning is a durable change in behavioral as a result of experience Respondent Conditioning: a learning process in which a stimulus (the eventual CS) gains the ability to elicit a response through repeated association with a stimulus (US) that already produces that response o Unconditioned Stimulus: an event that elicits a specific response automatically o Unconditioned Response: the automatic response to that stimulus o Conditioned Stimulus: the learned stimulus (before conditioning, was neutral stimulus) o Conditioned Response: the response to a learned stimulus o Respondent Behaviors: elicited involuntarily by stimuli Operant Conditioning: the learning process by which behavior changes due to consequences o Operant Behaviors: behavior operate on the environment, producing consequences o Reinforcement: a consequence (reward) following a behavior that strengthens the behavior, causing performance of that behavior to increase o Punishment: a consequence following a behavior that leads to a decrease in performance of that behavior o Antecedents: cues that are events or circumstances that precede a behavior and set the occasion for an action; learning involves discovering cues that help us determine the type of consequence our behavior will bring Modeling: learning a behavior (respondent or operant) by watching someone else perform it Cognition: refers to covert behaviors, particularly thinking and reasoning that occurs in the mind and are not observable to others Applied Behavior Analysis: a field of practice and study that focuses on using principles of learning, particularly operant conditioning, to understand and improve people’s socially significant behavior (often requires the patient to be actively involved) o Behavioral Methods: techniques based on operant and respondent conditioning, and modeling toward changing overt behavior o Cognitive Methods: are geared toward changing overt and covert behavior by modifying people’s thought processes o Intervention: the process or time period in which efforts are made to change behavior Behavior Modification: behavioral and cognitive methods are applied mainly by professionals in a variety of applied setting (institutions or industry) to improve almost any type of behavior Behavior Therapy: behavioral and cognitive methods are carried out by professionals in a therapeutic setting to correct seriously maladaptive behavior, often involving emotional issues Self-management: behavioral and cognitive methods are self-administered, often under the supervision of a professional Target Behaviors: the behavior to be changed in an intervention o Behavioral Deficit: a desirable behavior the person does not perform often enough o Behavioral Excess: an undesirable behavior the person performs too frequently Pragmatic: practical rather than theoretical or idealistic Psychoanalytic Theory by Sigmund Freud: a person’s behavior is an expression of his or her personality (internal forces, such as drives, motives, traits, and conflicts) (emphasis on childhood) Behaviorism: the theoretical orientation that emphasizes the study of observable and measurable behavior and proposes that nearly all behavior is the product of experience (learning emphasis, particularly operant and respondent) Chapter 2 ~ Identifying & Assessing Target Behaviors Outcome Goals: the broad or abstracted results we want to achieve Behavioral Goals: the specific level of the target behavior we hope to achieve in a program Behavioral Sub-Goals: intermediate levels of the behavior to be achieved by specific dates during the program Behavioral Chain: a motor activity that consists of a sequence of antecedents and responses; each antecedent-response pair is called a Link Behavioral Cusp: a behavior that has benefits beyond its direct effects because it exposes the person to new and richer environments, learning opportunities, and consequences that would not be available otherwise Response Generalization: altering one behavior leads to similar changes in another, unaddressed response, usually one that is similar or related to the target behavior Types of Data we can use to assess behavior: o Frequency: the number of times the response was observed o Duration: the length of time each instance of the target behavior occurs o Magnitude: the intensity, degree, or size of the target behavior o Latency: the amount of time a person takes to initiate the appropriate response to an antecedent o Quality: if your behavioral goal is to improve how well a person performs a target behavior o Trials-to-Criterion: involves tallying the number of trials the target person needed to achieve a specific level of performance o Percentage: the proportion of behaviors, or individuals performing behaviors, that meet some criterion, x 100 Direct Assessment Methods: observers measure instances of the actual target behavior in a straightforward manner, usually seeing or hearing Indirect Assessment Methods: use abstract or roundabout ways to measure the target behavior, usually by having the patient complete interview, questionnaires, or rating scales Continuous Recording: involves designating a specific time period to observe and record every instance of the target behavior that occurs throughout that period Interval Recording: a number of specific observation periods are designated, divide each period into fairly short intervals of equal length and record whether the target behavior occurs in each interval Time Sampling: one or more observation periods of equal length are designated, divide each period into sub periods of equal length, and designate a short interval at the start of each sub period for collecting data Reactivity: observing behavior can affect its performance Inter-observer Agreement: the degree of consistency of the data independent observers record when measuring the same events aka Inter-rater Reliability or Inter-observer Reliability o Session Totals Method: all the data collected by each of the two observers are added independently, the smaller sum is divided by the larger, and a percentage of agreement is obtained o Point-by-Point Agreement Method: divide the number of intervals for which the observers agreed that a target behavior occurred by the total number of interval in which records agreed and disagreed Chapter 3 ~ Using Data & Research Methods Baseline: refers to the data collected before the intervention began or the period of time during which those data were collected AB Single-Subject Design: A = Baseline Phase | B = Intervention Phase Dependent | Independent | Extraneous Variables | Cause – Effect | Functional Relationship Reversal Designs: a series of phases in which an intervention is alternately absent and present o ABA Design: baseline | intervention | reversal  Shows that the target behavior has changed and if it is due to the intervention o Problems encountered using the Reversal Design:  Possible permanent changes that cannot be reversed  Deciding on how to reverse condition back to baseline  Unethical to remove the intervention if it has benefited the patient well Multiple-Baseline Design: more than one AB design is conducted with all baselines starting at about the same time and proceeding together for a while; each baseline continues for a different length of time before the intervention begins o No reversal phases required o Introduction of the intervention is staggered across the separate AB Designs so that a baseline overlaps an intervention phase – enable comparisons o Across – Behaviors – Subjects – Situations Designs o Assuming that the only behavior | subject | in a situation that changes at any given time is the one newly exposed to the intervention, we can infer with strong certainty that applying the techniques caused the change o Cons: changes in one setting can influence another setting or changes occurred in the baseline before an intervention was introduced Group-Based Research: taking observations on many individuals and then combining the participants’ data, usually taking the average o Evaluate the Significant Difference to know whether or not two or more group averages differ and if the difference in the mean scores is sufficiently great enough that it probably didn’t happen by chance o Experimental vs. Non-Experimental Methods conducted as between or within subjects Changing-Criterion Designs: the criterion for successful performance changes over time, usually becoming more rigorous Alternating-Treatment Designs: examine the effects of two or more treatments, each of which are conducted within the same intervention phase with the same person but are separated by time and alternated Dimensions of Evaluation: o Generalization (carry over to other environments) and Durability of the Changes o Amount and Importance of the Changes  Clinical Significance: the degree to which the change in behavior is meaningful to the target’s life and functioning; meaningful change is defined as large and bringing the behavior to a normal range  Social Validity is the utility and adaptive-ness of the change for the target person’s everyday functioning o Costs and Benefits producing the Change Chapter 4 ~ Areas of Effective Application Oppositional Behavior: r
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