Textbook Notes (362,810)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 2


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 2 Areas of Application An overviewParenting and Child ManagementBehavioral techniques have been applied to help parents more effectively teach their children to walk develop initial language skills provide effective toilet training and influence their children to do household choresParents also taught behavioral strategies to decrease problem behaviorsSomechild and adolescent behavior problems are complex enough that in addition to helping parentswork with their children behaviorally oriented clinical psychologists treat the problems directlyEducation From Preschool to universityMany applications in elementary school were designed to change student behaviors that were disruptive or incompatible with academic learningThe progress that has been made includesaDevelopment of reliable observations for monitoring the behavior of physical education teachers and studentsbIncreased acceptance of behavioral teaching skills as important components of teacher preparation programscIncreased acceptance of behavioral strategies to help physical educators to manage a variety of behavioral difficulties of studentsKeller made Personalized system of instructions PSIBM approach to university teaching used to improve classroom instructionsIdentifies target behaviors or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questionsRequires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating masteryHas frequent tests in which students demonstrate their knowledge of answers to the study questionsHas mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level before going on the next levelNonpunitive in that students are not penalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but simply restudy and try againUses number of student assistants proctors to score tests immediately and provide feedback to students concerning test performanceIncorporates a go at your own pace feature in which students are allowed to proceed thru the course material at rates that suit their own particular abilities and time demandsUses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major means of presenting new infoPSI courses require good deal of labor to administer especially with large classes because extensive record keeping is requiredComputersemail make things a lot easierStudents receive more feedbackSevere Problems Developmental disabilitiesMental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual social and practical adaptive skills Disability originates before age 18In AAMR limited intellectual functioning is defined as an IQ scare that is at least two standard deviations below the mean of an appropriate assessment instrument which would be a score70 to 75 or below on some IQ test includes 23 of populationAAMR believed that individuals should be classified according to intensity and pattern of support that they require intermittent limited extensive and pervasive AAMR places greater emphasis on assessing and improving an individuals adaptive behavior
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