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Chapter 7

CH.7-psyb45 (pdf)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 7: Punishment Naela. S Defining Punishment • punishment- process whereby consequence of behaviour suppresses tht behaviour, decreasing its frequency, duration, or magnitude • punisher: are consequences that suppresses the behaviour; consequences ppl find unpleasant • important to access unpleasantness from the viewpoint of person who'll receive consequences -->e..g sometimes scolding can instead reinforce the behaviour they're trying to decrease --> e.g. ppl usually dislike pain, but for masochists, pain becomes conditioned reinforcer thru process of respondent conditioning- tht is by participating in/viewing activities tht associate pain with pleasure in sexual context • two reasons why scolding/spanking mite not be punishers: -> if these consequences applied poorly -> if reinforcement Brian gets from making noise is stronger then punishment being applied Natural & Programmed Punishment • natural punishers-consequences tht decrease a behaviour, happen spontaneously as normal part of everyday life & are not planned; given systematically to affect the behaviour • examples of natural punishers & their effects: -->friend scolds you for saying something tht's offensive; in future you refrain from saying similar things -->u hurt ur leg in a fall due to a ladder that you positioned in wobbly manner; in future you steady ladders and climb carefully • programmed punishers- consequences tht are planned & used systematically with goal of decreasing behaviour -->e.g. using lemon-juice therapy (squirting in infant's mouth every time she twisted her tongue around tht caused vomiting after feeding aka rumination) to decrease infant's rumination Positive & Negative Punishment • positive punishment- an aversive stimulus or condition is added as consequence of behaviour -->e.g have to do extra chores • negative punishment- stimulus or condition person already has at time behaviour occurs is subtracted as consequence of performing the behaviour -->e.g late fee when we fail to pay bill on time; money was something we already had • difference between processes of punishment and negative reinforcement: -->2 yr old Fran keeps sticking things in electric outlets which frightens her parents and they scold her (positive punishment) each time which made her stop -->but this is also an escape behaviour for parents; parents scolding behaviour negatively reinforced by reducing their fright Unconditioned & Conditioned Punishment • unconditioned punishers- aversive stimuli tht typically decrease behaviour on which they're contingent; appears to be inborn, promoting survival of each individual/species -->examples of stimuli serve as punishers without having been learned: pain, certain strong tastes/odours, electric shock, intense sounds, physical restraint • conditioned punishers- are stimuli tht don't have ability to suppress behaviour; they develop this function as a result of learning -->child learns parents saying “NO” as a punisher cause word was often paired with slap to child's hand Types of Punishing Events • positive punishment: physically aversive stimuli, reprimands, aversive activities • negative punishment: time-out, response cost PhysicallyAversive Stimuli • physically aversive stimuli- punishers tht cause physical discomfort, physical pain, or other unpleasant sensations • these stimuli are mainly unconditioned stimuli-hitting someone, administering electric shock • these consequences may be applied deliberately to correct a behaviour--> e.g. parents hit kids when they misbehave • can also be natural occurring events events tht happen as consequence of our behaviour; natural punishers usually involves careless behaviour --> e.g. burning your hand cause you moved to quickly with hot green tea • using physically aversive stimuli as punishers in therapy is usually avoided -->using mild electric shock is less controversial; still analysts avoid it • e.g. lemon-juice therapy uses mild punisher: case of 7yr old mentally retarded boy who began masturbating publicly when he was living in institution and continued when he got home -> before intervention: parents /teachers shouted “no!” & spanked his hands = didn't work -> first baseline: “no!” + spanking hand ; second baseline: just ignored him -> intervention: his parents or teacher wud squirt unsweetened lemon juice in his mouth evrytie he put his hands in his crotch area -> masturbatory behaviour ↑ during both baseline periods, ↓ during intervention & totally absent in 6 months of follow-ups Reprimands • • reprimands- verbal statements expressing strong criticism of on's behaviour; disapproving statements like “No! that's bad.” • since added after the behaviour occurs= provides positive punishment when they reduce operant behaviour • problem: using reprimands by themselves has varying effects-->e.g. sometimes telling child not to do something makes them want to do it more! AversiveActivities • aversive activities can serve as positive punishers • e.g. to stop kid who lived in residential institution from swearing all the time during dinner, he had to wash windows for 10 minutes every time he swore= swearing declined sharply and even during follow up • engaging in low-probability behaviour (washing windows) as consequence of performing target response tht occurs frequently (such as swearing) can reduce person's performance of freq. response • overcorrection- punishment procedure tht has the person engage in aversive activities tht correct or are the opposite of the undesirable target behaviour ->overcorrection has two methods: →restitution: when you have to correct the effects of misbehaviour & restoring envt usually to condition better than it was before the undesired behaviour ---> person wrote graffiti on wall so now has to paint the wall →positive practice: when behaviour occurs, person has to repeatedly perform an appropriate or useful alternative behaviour or competing response to tht of the misbehaviour ---> girl who pushes her brother so she can get the toy: has to repeatedly practice asking him nicely for toy & give him another toy in exchange Time-Out • time-out- punishment method in which, contingent on misbehaviour, the person's reinforcing env't is converted or moved, generally for a brief period, to one tht is less reinforcing • time-out periods should be short as possible while still reducing target behaviour markedly Brantner & Doherty described 3 levels: • most restrictive level, isolation time-out: person removed from reinforcing env't & placed in separate less reinforcing env't ---> being sent to room, institutions/schools set up “time-out” rooms where individuals taken if they misbehave (monitoring may be required for tho
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