Textbook Notes (369,137)
Canada (162,407)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Chapter 17

ch.17- psyb45 .pdf

5 Pages
150 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
CH.17- Using Extinction, Differential Reinforcement &Habitat Reversal to Decrease Behaviour- Naela. S Identifying and Controlling Reinforcement in Extinction • extinction- procedure or condition in which reinforcement is ended for behaviour, 3 characteristics: • extinction burst & aggression- when target behaviour occurs & no longer results in reinforcement, its frequency & magnitude may increase temporarily, & person may make aggressive acts • gradual decline & reappearance- target behaviour's decline usually occurs gradually or irregularly, & an extinguished behaviour can reappear after a while • resistance to extinction- is stronger when target behaviour was reinforced in past on intermittent schedule than on continuous reinforcement schedule Identifying a Behaviour's Reinforcers • to apply extinction= must determine reinforcers for target behaviour & terminate them • conduct functional assessment to identify behaviour’s reinforcers b.c -> using extinction just based on assumptions about behaviour’s reinforcers unlikely to succeed -> reinforcers for a specific behaviour (self-injury) can differ form one person to next (reinforcers for self-injurious behaviour were social attention for some children, escape from aversive situations for others) -> consequences tht influence problem behaviour (e.g. repetitive body rocking) can be diff in diff contexts -> problem behaviour may have multiple reinforcers; imp. to eliminate all of them -> makes extinction methods more effective in reducing behvaiour Eliminating a Behaviour's Reinforcers • if we can't control the reinforcer, we can't use extinction to reduce the behaviour's Can You Control the Reinforcement? • two circumstances where it's difficult to control reinforcers: • 1. when consequence for target behaviour is automatic reinforcement, such as stimulation a person gets from spinning objects or flapping hands repeatedly --> need creative ways to control the automatic reinforcement: reinforcer for a child was the sound plate made when he would spin it on a table, behaviour analysts covered table w/ carpeting -->e.g. automatic reinforcer was the sensation child felt when flapping hands, they attached vibrators to his hands to mask feeling • 2. when other people provide the reinforcers -->e.g. child who whines when their parent doesn't let them watch certain TV shows may get other parent to let them -->e.g. disruptive student in class may get laughs from other students for tht behaviour • stop this by explaining to others wht they're doing & how it promotes undesirable behaviour or give them rewards for not providing reinforces for target person's behaviour • sometimes not possible to control : teenager plays electric guitar loudly & enjoys sound (automatic reinforcer); parents want to decrease loudness, it's not likely they cud stop reinforcement unless convince teen to lower volume Enhancing the Effectiveness of Extinction • withhold all of the target behaviour’s reinforcers consistently --> failing to withhold reinforcers means reinforcement is occurring intermittently • when possible, reinforce appropriate acts tht are alternative behaviours or competing responses for problem behaviour --> e.g. if girl gets mad to get what she wants like toys, we wud make sure she wouldn't get those things when she's aggressive; reinforce her when she asks for the things instead • provide instructions regarding new contingencies --> if we're reinforcing alternative behaviours/ competing responses, shud explain what those acts are & wht their consequences will be • link extinction to variety of conditions in which target behaviour can occur --> extinction shud be carried out in variety of settings & with more than one person withholding reinforcement (promotes generalization) Problems inApplying Extinction What if Extinction Creates Danger? • behaviours like aggression or self-injury are destructive to property or could harm target person or someone else in tht person’s env't • using extinction wud mean behaviour will not be reinforced & declines over time but it may still produce damage before it entirely stops (using only extinction creates danger,raises ethical concerns) Dealing with the Characteristics of Extinction • extinction process has 3 characteristics the makes method difficult to use:  behaviours may show extinction burst  e.g. Steve has self-injurious behaviour of banging head against hard surfaces or hitting face with fist which was maintained by negative reinforcement (form of escaping from training sessions) • extinction for self-injurious: when self-injurious behaviour occurred, trainer simply guided Steve to complete task • once extinction was used, Steve became aggressive, slapping/kicking trainer who ignored him --> 1st: showed little/no aggression during baseline; 2nd: frequency of self-injurious behaviour shows extinction bursts after each extinction phase started; 3rd : aggression also increased after each extinction phase started; 4th: self-injurious & aggression behaviours declined gradually & irregularly across sessions in extinction--> sometimes occurring at high frequencies which is why using extinction alone is not recommended • temporarily reappearance of target behaviour • reappearance of extinguished behaviour might mislead people into thinking tht process of extinction didn’t succeed -- if they reinforce the behaviour again even a few times it will make behaviour more resistant to extinction! • when target behaviour shows extinction burst or temporary reappearance, important to maintain extinction procedure, which will eventually decrease behaviour Decreasing a Behaviour with Differential Reinforcement • when using differential reinforcement to decrease target behaviour, it involves reinforcing an alternative behaviour or competing response while withholding reinforcement—mainly by using extinction-- for another response category (problem behaviour) • most interventions tht use differential reinforcement methods use positive reinforcement, but negative reinforcement has also been used --> e.g. kid's self-injurious during training session can be reduced by allowing them to escape these activities (n. reinforcement) if they perform non-injurious alternative behaviours instead Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible orAlternative Behaviour • differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour (DRI): delivering reinforcers contingent (dependent) on the individual performing a competing response to un undesirable target behaviour • competing response-> incompatible behaviour that you can't do simultaneously with target behaviour • e.g. DRI used to reduce 3-6 year old children's disruptive behaviour (crying) during dental visits -->children received explanation of contingencies: withholding reinforcement (extinction) of disruptive behaviour & pos
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit