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Chapter 17

ch.17- psyb45 .pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

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CH.17- Using Extinction, Differential Reinforcement &Habitat Reversal to Decrease Behaviour- Naela. S Identifying and Controlling Reinforcement in Extinction • extinction- procedure or condition in which reinforcement is ended for behaviour, 3 characteristics: • extinction burst & aggression- when target behaviour occurs & no longer results in reinforcement, its frequency & magnitude may increase temporarily, & person may make aggressive acts • gradual decline & reappearance- target behaviour's decline usually occurs gradually or irregularly, & an extinguished behaviour can reappear after a while • resistance to extinction- is stronger when target behaviour was reinforced in past on intermittent schedule than on continuous reinforcement schedule Identifying a Behaviour's Reinforcers • to apply extinction= must determine reinforcers for target behaviour & terminate them • conduct functional assessment to identify behaviour’s reinforcers b.c -> using extinction just based on assumptions about behaviour’s reinforcers unlikely to succeed -> reinforcers for a specific behaviour (self-injury) can differ form one person to next (reinforcers for self-injurious behaviour were social attention for some children, escape from aversive situations for others) -> consequences tht influence problem behaviour (e.g. repetitive body rocking) can be diff in diff contexts -> problem behaviour may have multiple reinforcers; imp. to eliminate all of them -> makes extinction methods more effective in reducing behvaiour Eliminating a Behaviour's Reinforcers • if we can't control the reinforcer, we can't use extinction to reduce the behaviour's Can You Control the Reinforcement? • two circumstances where it's difficult to control reinforcers: • 1. when consequence for target behaviour is automatic reinforcement, such as stimulation a person gets from spinning objects or flapping hands repeatedly --> need creative ways to control the automatic reinforcement: reinforcer for a child was the sound plate made when he would spin it on a table, behaviour analysts covered table w/ carpeting -->e.g. automatic reinforcer was the sensation child felt when flapping hands, they attached vibrators to his hands to mask feeling • 2. when other people provide the reinforcers -->e.g. child who whines when their parent doesn't let them watch certain TV shows may get other parent to let them -->e.g. disruptive student in class may get laughs from other students for tht behaviour • stop this by explaining to others wht they're doing & how it promotes undesirable behaviour or give them rewards for not providing reinforces for target person's behaviour • sometimes not possible to control : teenager plays electric guitar loudly & enjoys sound (automatic reinforcer); parents want to decrease loudness, it's not likely they cud stop reinforcement unless convince teen to lower volume Enhancing the Effectiveness of Extinction • withhold all of the target behaviour’s reinforcers consistently --> failing to withhold reinforcers means reinforcement is occurring intermittently • when possible, reinforce appropriate acts tht are alternative behaviours or competing responses for problem behaviour --> e.g. if girl gets mad to get what she wants like toys, we wud make sure she wouldn't get those things when she's aggressive; reinforce her when she asks for the things instead • provide instructions regarding new contingencies --> if we're reinforcing alternative behaviours/ competing responses, shud explain what those acts are & wht their consequences will be • link extinction to variety of conditions in which target behaviour can occur --> extinction shud be carried out in variety of settings & with more than one person withholding reinforcement (promotes generalization) Problems inApplying Extinction What if Extinction Creates Danger? • behaviours like aggression or self-injury are destructive to property or could harm target person or someone else in tht person’s env't • using extinction wud mean behaviour will not be reinforced & declines over time but it may still produce damage before it entirely stops (using only extinction creates danger,raises ethical concerns) Dealing with the Characteristics of Extinction • extinction process has 3 characteristics the makes method difficult to use:  behaviours may show extinction burst  e.g. Steve has self-injurious behaviour of banging head against hard surfaces or hitting face with fist which was maintained by negative reinforcement (form of escaping from training sessions) • extinction for self-injurious: when self-injurious behaviour occurred, trainer simply guided Steve to complete task • once extinction was used, Steve became aggressive, slapping/kicking trainer who ignored him --> 1st: showed little/no aggression during baseline; 2nd: frequency of self-injurious behaviour shows extinction bursts after each extinction phase started; 3rd : aggression also increased after each extinction phase started; 4th: self-injurious & aggression behaviours declined gradually & irregularly across sessions in extinction--> sometimes occurring at high frequencies which is why using extinction alone is not recommended • temporarily reappearance of target behaviour • reappearance of extinguished behaviour might mislead people into thinking tht process of extinction didn’t succeed -- if they reinforce the behaviour again even a few times it will make behaviour more resistant to extinction! • when target behaviour shows extinction burst or temporary reappearance, important to maintain extinction procedure, which will eventually decrease behaviour Decreasing a Behaviour with Differential Reinforcement • when using differential reinforcement to decrease target behaviour, it involves reinforcing an alternative behaviour or competing response while withholding reinforcement—mainly by using extinction-- for another response category (problem behaviour) • most interventions tht use differential reinforcement methods use positive reinforcement, but negative reinforcement has also been used --> e.g. kid's self-injurious during training session can be reduced by allowing them to escape these activities (n. reinforcement) if they perform non-injurious alternative behaviours instead Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible orAlternative Behaviour • differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour (DRI): delivering reinforcers contingent (dependent) on the individual performing a competing response to un undesirable target behaviour • competing response-> incompatible behaviour that you can't do simultaneously with target behaviour • e.g. DRI used to reduce 3-6 year old children's disruptive behaviour (crying) during dental visits -->children received explanation of contingencies: withholding reinforcement (extinction) of disruptive behaviour & pos
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