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Chapter 18

ch.18- psyb45 .pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

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CH.18- Using Time-out & Response-Cost Punishment to Decrease a Behaviour Naela.S Deciding Whether to Use Punishment • punishment- process in which consequence of a behaviour decreases future performance of tht behaviour • positive punishment: aversive stimulus/condition (e.g. reprimand) is added as consequence of behaviour • negative punishment: stimulus (e.g. money) is taken away --> 2 types: time-out, response cost Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Punishment • advantages: rapid results, eliminates behaviour almost entirely (e.g. self-injurious behaviour) • disadvantages: cud lead to target person having strong emotional reactions: escape, avoidance, aggressive behaviours When To Consider Using Punishment • behaviour analysts try to avoid punishment, but when is it acceptable, what issues to consider? • 1.) consider whether nonaversive methods have been used: --> can use functional assessment to figure out whether we cud use other alternatives to punishment such as manipulating antecedents, extinction, differential reinforcement -->use punishment if all of these techniques above don't work in decreasing target behaviour • 2.) deciding whether to use punishment relates to characteristics of target person's behaviour: --> need to look at target behaviour’s likelihood of causing injury/harm to person or others (if likelihood high= punishment) --> acceptable for self-injurious behaviour like severe aggression, vomiting -->highly embarrassing (e.g self-stimulation) or bizarre behaviours makes person socially isolated= punishment is way to go • 3.) our ability to control extraneous, counterproductive reinforcers of undesirable behaviour: --> some behaviours automatic/built in reinforcers-- self-stimulation, public masturbation --> naturally occurring reinforcement: stealing, speeding when driving -->some behaviours reinforced by others --> when we can't control extraneous behaviours= nonpunitive methods won't work so use punishment • 4.) types of punishers available: -->response cost, reprimands, time-out most acceptable forms of punishers; physical punishment least acceptable -->thus more likely to use negative punishment (as they have least negative side effects) --> punisher must be effective in decreasing target behaviour Negative Punishment: Time-Out & Response-Cost Using Time-Out • time-out- punishment method in which, contingent on misbehaviour, person’s reinforcing env't is converted or moved, usually for brief period, to one tht is less reinforcing • 1.) isolation time-out-- misbehaved person removed from reinforcing env't to separate setting such as cubicle, w/ no opportunity for reinforcement • 2.) exclusion time-out-- person cut from opportunities for reinforcement without being isolated (e..g being moved to other side of classroom & not allowed to participate in ongoing reinforcing activities such as game time) • 3.) nonexclusion time-out-- misbehaved person not removed from ongoing activities at all, but receives signal indicating period in which he/she cannot earn reinforcers tht wud've been available if misbehaviour hadn't occurred • imp. to have little to no reinforcement in time-out condition Examples of Time-Out Methods • isolation time-out used in intervention to decrease infant's dangerous behaviours such as touching stoves & electrical cords: -->each 10 min baseline phase, every 30-sec interval mother checked whether potentially rd dangerous behaviour occurred as infant was free playing--> occurred 1/3 of intervals -->intervention: mothers trained to: (1) childproof house, (2) praise child for appropriate behaviour, (3) time-out immediately after potentially dangerous behaviour occurred by saying “no”, picking up child, & putting him/her in playpen for short time -->decreased target behaviours & zero levels at follow-ups • exclusion time out used in intervention to decrease spitting & self-injurious behaviours of boy w/ autism: --> time-in condition: boy was in training sessions w/ simple prompted tasks he cud easily do which allowed him to earn reinforcers- praise, food, playing w/ toys & music playing --> when target behaviour occurred= 90 second time-out: turned off music, removed reinforcers (not toys, which boy didn’t play with alone) & moved to other side of room --> exclusion time-out can be used by having person stay in same env't while stuff used for
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