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PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 8: Antecedents – Stimulus Control Setting the Occasion for Behaviour:  Antecedents  cues that precede and set the occasion for a behaviour  Learn cues that tell us when and where to perform or not perform certain responses by linking the cues with the behv and its consequences Types of Antecedents:  Behv happens in a context – includes objects, o/ ppl, internal events (anything in the context that arouses behv is a stimulus) Overt and Covert Antecedents:  Overt antecedents: directly observable through our senses  Covert – internal and not open to observation  Most common conseq of compulsive buying = neg reinforcements (gaining relief- escaping neg feeling of anxiety) Immediate and Distant Antecedents:  Most antecedents present shortly before behv occurs  Immediate antecedents  Most are discrete events (have a start and a end, usually in short period of time) o BUT can be continuing/ ongoing conditions too  Ex: elderly patients communicated more when environmental changes were made by rearranging furniture to sit around small tables and served meals in buffet style  Sometimes antecedents precede behv by several minutes, hours, or much longer amounts of time  Distant antecedents o Ex: strong emotional and covert components of woman physically abused (influenced for weeks/ years) o Behv analysts need to identify existing antecedents by making systematic observations of targ behv o Overt and immediate easy to identify o Covert and distant relatively difficult Antecedent Functions:  Antecedents—2 diff functions: o 1. Motivational – affects the effectiveness of a consequence for a behv  Ex: thirsty not hungry  water more effective reinforcer o 2. Discriminative – stimulus that you can distinguish from many other objs  Ex: seeing the water fountain Discriminative Stimuli:  Discriminative stimulus  cue that sets the occasion for a particular response and signals that the response will be followed by a particular type of consequence  Presence of Sd, behv likely to cnt to increase if reinforced in the past OR occur less freq if punished  Discriminative function & motivational function o W.o being thirsty, not likely that you would use the fountain (sd) even though you saw it  Discriminative and motivational have 2 features in common o Both exist before targ behv occurs AND increases likelihood behv will occur Establishing Operations:  Establishing Operations increases effectiveness of particular conseq, reinforcer, punisher which enhances motivational function of the antecedent o Determine what the indiv wants or needs as a reinforcer at a particular time  Common establishing operation in interventions is deprivation o Effectiveness of various reinforcers increase with deprivation and decrease with satiation Learning Antecedents:  Respond correctly to e/ spelling req, must have learned to distinguish among letters of the alphabet Stimulus Discrimination:  Consequence is administered for a particular behv when a specific stim is present but NOT when another stim is present  Discrimination training o Ex: learn to say doggie when we saw a dog but not when we
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