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Chapter 19

CH.19- psyb45.pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

CH.19- Using Positive Punishment To DecreaseABehaviour Naela. S Positive Punishment and its Problems Aversive Stimuli • some stimuli can make target person feel physical discomfort & some result in psychological discomfort (e.g verbal reprimand) Reprimands • reprimands- verbal statements expressing strong criticism of one's behaviour (e.g. parent telling child for misbehaving “ That's bad!” • these positive punishments can be administered easily/ quickly, even more effective when target person is nearby & reprimand followed by fixed stare & firm grasp (e.g. such as of the person's shoulder) • more effective when paired w/ other punishers- such as mild, physically aversive stimuli • e.g before using punisher like time-out, parent states the reprimand: “taking her toy was bad! Go sit in corner” --> reprimands tht suppress responses are conditioned punishers-- since they gained ability to suppress behaviour by having been paired w/ other punishers • effects of using it alone: -->e.g. reprimands from parent/ teacher often act as reinforcers->increase rather than decrease target behaviour --> also behaviour mite stop only for short time & frequency of behaviour actually increases later PhysicallyAversive Stimuli • physically aversive stimuli- punishers that cause physical discomfort, pain, or other unpleasant sensations; used each time target behaviour occurs • shud be used for very serious behaviours (chronic self-injury) & stimuli shud be mild as possible • Table 19.1- variety of physically aversive stimuli & target behaviours they've decreased PhysicallyAversive Stimuli Behaviour Decreased Cold (ice cube held briefly against jaw) Bruxism (grinding teeth) Facial screening (briefly covering face w/ cloth or self-injurious behaviour hand) Noise (loud tone thru headphones; stopped when finger sucking behaviour ended) Odour (ammonia fumes in capsules held under nose) self-injurious behaviour Spray (brief water spray to face) self-injurious behaviour Taste (lemon juice squirted in mouth) rumination (regurgitating food) • electric shock --> Self-Injurious Behaviour Inhibiting System (SIBIS) uses mild electric shock to punish & decrease self-injurious behaviour like head banging --> shock apparatus has stimulus tht gives shock to arm or leg & headband has impact detector tht senses hit to the head --> when hit to head occurs-- detectors sends signal to stimulus module tht sounds a tone & delivers 3.5 mAshock, which is mild shock (optional: analyst can control delivery of shock w/ transmitter) • effectiveness of SIBIS for 5 head banging ppl w/ devptl disabilities: decreased to near-zero lvls • long term effects: possible tht it may loose effectiveness for some ppl when applied on long- term basis AversiveActivities • aversive activities- behaviours tht person doe not enjoy & performs very infrequently (low- probability behaviours) Contingent Exercise, Physical Restraint, and Response Blocking • contingent exercise- aversive activities type of punishment in which person must perform motor acts repeatedly --> e.g. when Peter performed aggregates act, he had to stand up & down for 10 min • physical restraint- punishment method in which body part tht makes problem behaviour is held in place for period of time, preventing unwanted action • response blocking- physically intervening to prevent person’s performance of unwanted target behaviour --> e.g. to decrease child's mouthing of fingers, place palm of ur hand in front of mouth soon as child moves his/her hand towards face Overcorrection • overcorrection- punishment procedure tht has person engage in activities (low-probability behaviours) tht correct and/or are the opposite of undesirable behaviour when misbehaviour occurs • includes 2 forms: • restitution- correcting effects of problem behaviour & restoring env't, usually to condition better than it was before misbehaviour -->e.g. boy who gets clothes muddy has to wash and fold those clothes • positive practice- used when misbehaviour occurs, requires person to perform repeatedly an appropriate or useful alternative behaviour or competing response --> e.g. girl who makes many math errors cause she rushes has to do over & over again math problems she got wrong • restitution used in intervention to reduce stealing by institutionalized adults w/ mental retardation: ->main items they wud steal from one another was food at mealtime -> first used “simple correction” in which staff required only that thief return food (theft continued..) ->intervention used restitution: simple correction method + thief go to food display w/ staff member, get identical item & give it to victim (theft eliminated in few days!) • positive punishment used in intervention to reduce sprawling- sitting or lying about- on floors instead of chairs for adults w/ mental retardation: -> intervention involved individuals who sat on floor told they cud not do tht & needed to get up, go to nearest chair, sit there for about 1 min, then go & sit for minute on several other chairs & left sitting on last chair -> verbal directions/ physical help provided; sprawling eliminated in 10 days! • Overcorrection effective in hospital, class, home settings; have built-in alternative behaviours & com
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