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Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9: Motivation Defining Motivation Traditional Views:  Process that initiates, directs and maintains physical and psychological activities  2 parts: o 1. Drives  unconditioned & biologically based (hunger) o 2. Motives  partly learned & psychologically/ socially based (Desire for money) Broad Motives:  Achievement motive  desire to succeed and make significant/ valuable accomplishments  Don’t have a clear understanding of how traits and motives develop  Psychologists believe achievement motives are learned  More kids experience pride in accomplishments & shame in failure, stronger achievement motive will be Desire and Readiness to Change:  Ppl who want to improve their behaviour are more likely to participate successfully in interventions  Desire to change = motive (impt in therapy esp self management) o Assessed by scale of motivation to change behv  Stages of change model descbs 5 stages through which ppl’s motivation progress in readiness to change.  Lowest stage= no interest & highest= completed change & working to maintain (intermediate stage= preparation—made commitment to modify behv) A behaviour Analytic View:  Behv analytic view more useful  focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent o Want to engance motivation in interventions  Current approach began with a article by Jack Michael o Included establishing operations defined as environmental manipulations that alter the effect of a stimulus as a reinforcer and increases the freq of all responses that have been reinforced with that stimulus in the past (ex: water) Motivating Operations:  Motivating Operations (MOs) temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on behv AND performance of behvs thatnormally lead to those conseqs  Changing the effectiveness of a conseq  value-altering effect  Changing performance of behaviours normally lead to those conseqs  behv-altering effect o Behv altering effect measured most oft as freq but also applies to duration & magnitude  Two types of Motivational operations: o 1. Establishing Operation – increases the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher (value-altering) & lead to corresponding changes in behv (behv-altering effect) o 2. Abolishing Operation – decrease effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher (can be value altering or behv-altering)  two types of behv-alt effect o 1. Evocative effect – increases behv o 2. Abative effect – decreases behv Establishing and Abolishing Operations for Reinforcement:  Positive reinforcement: food seeking and preparation behvs increase with deprivation (EO) and decrease with satiation (AO)  Food deprivation & satiation are MOs for food serving as a reinforcer  Changes in reinforcer strength are value-altering effects  Changes in behv are behv altering effects o Similar effects of EO and AO with toys, music, social attention  Neg reinforcement: reduction of an uncomfortable condition o High or low room temp o If room temp was very low, reinforcer effectiveness of making the room warm and the evocative behv alt effect would both be very strong  Escape from aversive conditions  children doing a difficult task leads to destructive behv (negatively reinforced by escape)  Child with autism  destructive behv occurs when tasks are repeated over and over (E
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