Textbook Notes (368,774)
Canada (162,158)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 9: Motivation Defining Motivation Traditional Views:  Process that initiates, directs and maintains physical and psychological activities  2 parts: o 1. Drives  unconditioned & biologically based (hunger) o 2. Motives  partly learned & psychologically/ socially based (Desire for money) Broad Motives:  Achievement motive  desire to succeed and make significant/ valuable accomplishments  Don’t have a clear understanding of how traits and motives develop  Psychologists believe achievement motives are learned  More kids experience pride in accomplishments & shame in failure, stronger achievement motive will be Desire and Readiness to Change:  Ppl who want to improve their behaviour are more likely to participate successfully in interventions  Desire to change = motive (impt in therapy esp self management) o Assessed by scale of motivation to change behv  Stages of change model descbs 5 stages through which ppl’s motivation progress in readiness to change.  Lowest stage= no interest & highest= completed change & working to maintain (intermediate stage= preparation—made commitment to modify behv) A behaviour Analytic View:  Behv analytic view more useful  focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent o Want to engance motivation in interventions  Current approach began with a article by Jack Michael o Included establishing operations defined as environmental manipulations that alter the effect of a stimulus as a reinforcer and increases the freq of all responses that have been reinforced with that stimulus in the past (ex: water) Motivating Operations:  Motivating Operations (MOs) temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on behv AND performance of behvs thatnormally lead to those conseqs  Changing the effectiveness of a conseq  value-altering effect  Changing performance of behaviours normally lead to those conseqs  behv-altering effect o Behv altering effect measured most oft as freq but also applies to duration & magnitude  Two types of Motivational operations: o 1. Establishing Operation – increases the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher (value-altering) & lead to corresponding changes in behv (behv-altering effect) o 2. Abolishing Operation – decrease effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher (can be value altering or behv-altering)  two types of behv-alt effect o 1. Evocative effect – increases behv o 2. Abative effect – decreases behv Establishing and Abolishing Operations for Reinforcement:  Positive reinforcement: food seeking and preparation behvs increase with deprivation (EO) and decrease with satiation (AO)  Food deprivation & satiation are MOs for food serving as a reinforcer  Changes in reinforcer strength are value-altering effects  Changes in behv are behv altering effects o Similar effects of EO and AO with toys, music, social attention  Neg reinforcement: reduction of an uncomfortable condition o High or low room temp o If room temp was very low, reinforcer effectiveness of making the room warm and the evocative behv alt effect would both be very strong  Escape from aversive conditions  children doing a difficult task leads to destructive behv (negatively reinforced by escape)  Child with autism  destructive behv occurs when tasks are repeated over and over (E
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.