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Chapter 10

Chapter 10.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

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Chapter 10: Methods to Establish New Operant Behaviours What is Shaping?  Shaping  performance of a specifc behv improves b/c higher and higher criteria are required for successive instances f reinforcement for that behaviour Successive Approximations:  Sequence of behv in which responses become closer and closer to the form and quantity of well- performed targ behv is called Successive approximations  Each approximation called a step  Reqs initial starting response  Response in a lesser step no longer reinforced  Allow behv to stay at a step reinforcing specific response more than one time before requiring movement to the next step  Also shaped naturally o Ex: babies babble playing with vowel sounds. Attentive parents reinforce specific vocal sounds tickling, smiling etc and infants make more of those sounds  If reinforcement no longer given (extinction) these sounds decline o Print block letters, looking for better and better approximations to well formed E’s and giving social reinforcers o Also applied to improve existing skill Qualitative “Topographic” Shaping:  Qualitative shaping aka topographic shaping = higher standards for performance pertain to degree to which responses look, sound, or feel like the well formed behv (ex: better looking Es)  Application: boy with autism trained to wear his glasses Quantitative Shaping:  Quantitative shaping  for reinforcement to increase or decrease, quantity of behv must change in freq, duration or magnitude o Ex: biofeedback to increase heart rate by 17 beats/min o Initial criterion was 5 beats above baseline, raised once each level had been achieved  Latency period  antecedent to beginning of actual behv o Ex: command “put away toys” to actually beginning to put them away Shaping Problem Behaviours:  Tantrums  associate crying with reinforcers such as getting attention or items/ activities they want  2-3 yrs kids acquire mands  If they don’t know the words or say the correct mand but don’t et what they w
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