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Chapter 10

ch.10- psyb45.pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

CH.10- Shaping Naela. S What is Shaping? • shaping- process or procedure of requiring successively better instances of new behaviour to receive reinforcement, thereby making behaviour increasingly well developed SuccessiveApproximations • successive approximations- sequence of actions tht resemble more & more the well-performed target behaviour in form & quantity --> each approximation called step • once behaviour moved from one step to another, response in lesser step no longer reinforced • ppl's behaviour can also be shaped naturally : as when infants learn to talk will start to babble --> smiling/attentive parents elicit vocal sounds by baby ; if specific vocal sounds are reinforced, such as tickling/praise, infants make more of those sounds • e.g. shaping used to teach girl to print block letters -> although her first attempt is very distant approximation to an E, initial attempt wud receive praise as good starting point -> later as standards for printing an E increase, Erin would need to make successively better approximations to receive continued praise • shaping can be used to train a behaviour person hasn't performed; as well as existing behaviour Qualitative “Topographic” Shaping • qualitative shaping (“topographic shaping”) - successively higher standards for performance pertain to degree to which responses look, sound, feel like well-formed behaviour --> any operant behaviour can be qualitatively shaped, • e.g. used in intervention to get Drew (preschool w/ autism) to wear his glasses: -> when ppl tried to make him wear it, he wud throw glasses on floor -> started shaping during breakfast when Drew was hungry so they cud use food reinforcers -> successive approximations began w/ starting response of touching glasses, next step picking up glasses, putting them up to face, then putting them on properly -> later required to wear glasses for activities such as meals/walks or activity would be terminated Quantitative Shaping • quantitative shaping- refers to setting criteria for reinforcement to increase or decrease quantity of behaviour, by changing its frequency, duration, or magnitude • e.g. study tht used biofeedback to increase 20-yr-old man's heart rate by 17 beats per min above baseline levels --> man cud hear audio portion of tv programs at all times during intervention, but video portion remained on only if he kept his heart rate at certain levels -->initial criterion was 5 beats above baseline to keep video portion on, but criteria were raised once each level was achieved • Table 10.1- Quantitative Shaping Dimensions of Behaviour Dimension Definition Example Behaviours frequency # of times behaviour occurs in given time # of potatoes washed or words spelled correctly in 10-min sessions duration length of time an instance of behaviour lasts, time spent exercising on treadmill or reading beginning to end textbook magnitude behaviour's intensity, degree, or size amount (in volume) of fruit picked latency time from antecedent's onset until behaviour starts time elapsing between going to bed & falling asleep Shaping in Real Life Shaping Everyday Behaviours • e.g. everythingAlma learns to do will be shaped by real-life events --> as she learns to eat w/ spoon, her aim at her cereal & her face will get bett
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