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Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 14: Managing Antecedents Identifying and Modifying Existing Antecedents:  1 step in managing antecedents = identify existing cues through f. assessment Identifying Antecedents:  Hunches should not be conclusions  Antecedents for a behv specific to indiv  Need to assess the antecedents for e/ person  Ease which we can identify antecedents depends on whether they are over or covert and/or immediate or distant AND excess or deficit Antecedents for Behavioural Excess:  Behavioural excess antecedents that are overt and immediate fairly easy to identify o Sometimes not easily noticed  Behv excess that are covert or distant more difficult to identify o Some cases person isn’t even aware of the cues o Use careful direct observations AND indirect assessment methods (interviews, questionnaires) Antecedents for Behavioural Deficits:  Behv deficits, identify cues that set occasion for a behv not occurring  Look for antecedents and conseqs linked to non-occurrences of responses Ways to alter the antecedents:  Manipulating physical or social stimuli  4 basic ways: o Dev or intro new Sds o Modify existing Sds o Manipulate Mo o Manipulate effort needed to make response Developing or introducing new Sds:  Teaching indivs Sds that they don’t already know  Provide conseqs (reinforcement) for a particular behv when a specific stim (Sd) is present but not when some other stim (S-delta) is present  Time consuming process  shortcut methods (physical guidance, instructions, transferring stim cntrl) o Ex: reduce tv watching, post sign on tv “Do not watch” Modifying existing Sds:  Modify normal cues. 2 approaches: o 1. Altering Sd physically (within-stimulus prompt) o 2. Adding another stimulus to it (extra-stimulus prompt)  Can involve pictures, sounds, environmental alterations (esp useful when trying to correct behv deficit)  Behv excess, 2 techniques useful: o 1. Eliminating Sds for targ behv o 2. Encouraging desirable alt behv  Ex: watch too much tv, narrow range (9-10pm tv time in living room) Manipulating motivating Operations and Response Effect:  Manipulating Mps increase or decrease behv  Law of least effort more likely to make responses easy to do than hard to do  Manage antecedents by making problem behvs more difficult and desirable behvs easier Managing Discriminative Stimuli:  Managing Sds involve eliminating or reducing existing antecedents and developing or introducing antecedents for a desirable act (ex: competing response or alt behv) Eliminating Existing Sds for a Problem Behaviour:  Eliminate or reduce the Sds that encourage prob behv  Behv excess of drinking too much, staying away from bars  A/o way to eliminate existing Sd = turn it into an S-delta signalling that the associated behv wont be reinforced o Present Sd repeatedly while preventing it from being associated with rewards turning it into a S-delta  Ex: present alcoholic beverages & preventing reinforcements (consuming alcohol) can help quit drinking Manipulating Sds for a Desirable Behaviour:  Manipulate Sds to promote desirable behv o Correct behv deficit OR increase competing response or alt behv to replace a prob behv excess (ex: aggression) o Competing resp = desirable act incompatible with targ behv o Alt behv= any behv diff from targ behv & can take its place  Ex: kid’s body rocking when task too difficult, taught how to ask for help when task was difficult instead of rocking body via prompts, gradually faded prompts away  To correct behv deficit, teach new Sd by way of discriminating training OR use shortcut methods (prompting) Case study: Betrayed Husband:  Wife cheated on husband’s bff --> Given a specific room and time to sulk  Indivs who worry chronically can successfully restrict worrying to certain times/ places Altering Motivating Operations:  2 types of MOs
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