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Chapter 8

CH.8- psyb45 .pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

CH.8-Antecedents: Stimulus Control Naela. S Setting the Occasion for Behaviour • antecedents- stimuli tht exist or occur before & set stage for particular behaviours • e.g. ur thirsty, see water fountain, these two cues set occasion for you to use fountain to drink Types ofAntecedents • anything in context tht arouses behaviour is a stimulus (other ppl,place, internal events like feeling hungry, objects) which we can use as antecedent for performing or not performing operant behaviour • examples of antecedents influencing behaviour: -> teacher asking question sets stage for students to raise their hands -> seeing your dog lead you to call its name -> hearing someone call ur name gets you to look at person -> feeling someone you like touch your neck leads you to hug her -> thinking about stressful event makes you act grumpy -> saying in ur mind “I hate to exercise,” leads you away from physical activity -> feeling tired induces you to stop studying Overt and CovertAntecedents • overt- open to or directly observable through our senses (e.g. seeing dog, smelling coffee) • covert- internal & not open to observation (e.g saying something in mind, feeling tired) • study of compulsive buyers showed covert antecedents involving negative emotions such as feeling angry or depressed, are common events tht lead them to buy Immediate and DistantAntecedents • immediate antecedent- present shortly before behaviour occurs -->e.g. hear someone say “FIRE!” you head toward exit right away • traffic lights antecedent to behaviour: in order to prevent ppl from zipping through signal when yellow or red light just appeared, researchers altered timing sequence of two signals so tht second signal's yellow light came sooner & red stayed for shorter period (since stoping for long can be unpleasant) --> results: over 90% drivers stopped at yellow, red light • e.g applying antecedents to improve behaviour: training beginners in tennis: players skill in hitting ball improved when they learned to give themselves 4 verbal cues such as say “ready”- when machine about to project next ball or “ ball” when ball shot out of machine --> training can help ppl learn cues they fail to learn on their own • interventions in which ppl's behaviour improved after ongoing antecedent conditions were changed: 1.) study found elderly patients in mental institution communicated with each other & staff more when two envtl changes were made: furniture rearranged on wards so ppl sat around small tables rather than along walls & were served food buffet style tht way they can serve themselves instead of other ppl giving it to them 2.) researchers found students on playground waiting for building to open engaged in half as much aggression when they were encouraged to play organized games like rope jumping --> previous antecedents sets stage for solitary behaviour in elders and aggression in children thus changes to antecedent necessary • distant antecedents- antecedent precede behaviour by several minutes, hours, or longer amounts of time; continue to affect behaviour for long time due to strong emotional/ covert components • antecedents that are covert or distant- difficult to identify since not directly observable & consist of thoughts, feelings Antecedent Functions • using example of being thirsty & seeing water fountain • antecedents can have two functions: • motivational function- which affects effectiveness of consequence for behaviour; if ur thirsty & not hungry water is more likely to be effective reinforcer for using fountain than food • discriminative function- water fountain example of discriminative stimulus b/c it is stimulus tht u can distinguish from other objects like lamp, & you have learned tht using it leads to certain consequence: water as reinforcement Discriminative Stimuli • discriminative stimulus (Sᴰ)- cue tht sets occasion for particular response & signals tht the response will be followed by particular type of consequence ; stimulus tht has been associated as an antecedent for specific reinforced response • in presence of Sᴰ, behaviour likely to continue/increase if it was reinforced in past or to occur less frequently if punished • examples of Sᴰ you may have learned: -->hear dial tone (Sᴰ) from house phone & dial # you want to call . In past u learned dialing on tht type of phone works (is reinforced) only if dial tone sounds -->you see light (Sᴰ) on your electric range indicating tht burner was turned off but is still hot, so u avoid touching burner. In past you were punished for touching burner when light was on --> you double-click your mouse on icon (Sᴰ) on your desktop to start application. In past, u learned opening application by double-clicking on desktop works (is reinforced) only when icon is present --> someone asks, “please spell ur last name” (Sᴰ) & you do. In childhood u were reinforced with praise for spelling name correctly when asked to do so. Today spelling ur name when asked still receives reinforcement such as allowing u to complete interview quickly • sometimes motivational function is critical so without ur being thirsty, it's not likely u'll use fountain (Sᴰ) even though u saw it • discriminative & motivational functions of antecedents have two features in common: both functions exist before target behaviour occurs & increase likelihood tht behaviour will occur Establishing Operations • establishing operations- motivating operations that increase effectiveness of reinforcer or punisher & produce corresponding alterations in behaviour • e.g person who hasn't eaten for several hours is hungry, making food more effective reinforcer than it was soon after a meal • common establishing operation in interventions is deprivation: presenting Sᴰ when person has been without specific reinforcer (such as food or water for amount of time) • researchers showed tht those developmentally disabled demonstrated tht effectiveness of various reinforcers-food, music, social interaction- on behaviour increases w/ deprivation from those stimuli & decreases w/ satiation LearningAntecedents Stimulus Discri
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