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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - KJ.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek

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Chapter 8: Antecedents: Stimulus Control  Antecedents: cues that precede and set the occasion for a behaviour (cause us to do, think, and feel) o Cues tell us what to respond by linking cues to behaviour and its consequence.  Behaviour happens in a context which includes objects, peoples, and internal events ex. hunger.  Anything in the context that arouses behaviour is a stimulus.  Example of antecedent influencing behaviour: a teacher asking a question sets the occasion for students to raise their hands. o Antecedents involve any of our senses o Effects of antecedents may vary between people. Ex. not all students will raise their hand. Types of Antecedents:  Overt and Covert Antecedents o Overt: open or directly observable through senses ex. seeing your dog o Covert: internal and not open to observation ex. feeling tired  Ex. buying things compulsively is a negative reinforcement; it gets rid of negative emotions of anger or depression.  Immediate and Distant Antecedents o Immediate antecedents: are present shortly before the behaviour occurs.  Ex. putting out food in buffet style for elderly to increase their communication with each other. o Distant antecedents: precede behaviour by several minutes, hours, or much longer amounts of time.  They affect behaviour for a long time after occurrence due to strong emotional .and covert components.  Ex. a woman who is physically abused may go on for years with emotions and thoughts about these events.  It is easier to identify antecedents that are overt and immediate rather than covert and distant. Antecedent functions:  Motivational function: relates thirst to water (behaviour to a consequence)  Discrimination function: seeing a water fountain (discriminating it from many other objects) Discriminative stimulus (Sᶛ): ex. reading a note and pressing the correct key on the piano. The note was a stimulus. Ex. restroom picture displaying both genders can use the restroom.  Behaviour continues to occur if it was reinforced in the past or it occurs less frequently if it was punished.  discriminate and motivational: o both occur before target behaviour and increase the likelihood that the behaviour will occur  Behaviour analysts may try to increase motivation by applying establishing operations.  Establishing operations: increases effectiveness of consequence on performance of target behaviour which enhances motivational functions of antecedent conditions. o Common establishing operation in intervention is deprivation: presenting discriminative stimuli when the person has been without reinforce for suitable amount of time.  Ex. getting lunch after lunch time  Behaviour increases with deprivation and decreases with satiation Stimulus Discrimination  Discrimination training: a consequence is administered for a particular behaviour when a specific stimulus is present but not when another stimulus is present. o Ex. a teacher wearing different lei red and green to differentiate when she would answers questions or not.  Discriminating is rewarding when referring to a specific stimulus, but not when referring to others. Ex. calling mom “mommy” it is not reinforcing when used for aunts or teachers. o This involves antecedents of two types:  A discriminative stimulus (Sᶛ): teaches that an antecedent leads to a particular consequence.  S-delta (S∆): a stimulus is associated with not being reinforced for making a given response. Thus, S-delta is a cue to not perform that particular behaviour.  Ex. of Sᶛ and S∆ o Sᶛ would lend you money, like family or friends. They know you have paid back in the past. o S∆ would not lend you mone
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