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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

PSYB45 - CHAPTER 1  behaviour modification focuses on behaviour and behaviour change Defining Human Behavior:  human behaviour is the subject matter of behaviour modification  Behavior = what ppl do and say Characteristics that define behavior:  involves a person's actions o described with action verbs o " she screamed, ran upstairs and slammed the door"  have one or more dimensions that can be measured o you can measure the frequency of a behaviour (you can count the # of times a behaviour occurs) o you can measure the duration of a behaviour or the time from when an instance of the behaviour starts until it stops ("jogged for 25 minutes") o you can measure the intensity of a behaviour or the physical force involved in the behaviour ("bench pressed 220 pounds) o you can measure the speed of behaviour or the latency from some event to the start of a behaviour o Frequency, duration, intensity and latency are all physical dimensions of a behaviour  behaviours can be observed, described and recorded by others or by the person engaging in the behaviour  behaviours have an impact on the environment, including the physical or social environment  behaviours is lawful; that is its occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental events.  behaviours may be overt and covert o overt behaviour = an action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behaviour o covert behaviour = also called private events = are not observable to others  Ex: thinking > covert behaviour CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIOR: - Behavior is what ppl do and say - behaviours have one or more dimensions - behaviours can be observed, described and recorded - behaviours have an impact on the environment - behaviour is lawful - behaviours may be overt and covert Defining Behavior Modification  behaviour modification = is the field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behaviour  analyzing = means identifying the functional relationship btw environmental events and a particular behaviour to understand the reasons for behaviour or to determined why a person behaved as he or she did  Modifying means developing and implementing procedures to help ppl change their behaviour…it involves altering environmental events so as to influence behaviour Characteristics of Behaviour Modification  focus on behaviour  designed to change behaviour not a personal characteristic or trait  de-emphasizing labeling  the behaviour to be modified = TARGET BEHAVIOR  BEHAVIORAL EXCESS = is an undesirable target behaviour the person wants to decrease in frequency, duration or intensity (ex: somoking)  BEHAVIORAL DEFICIT = a desirable target behaviour the person wants to increase in frequency, duration and intensity (Ex: exercising/studying)  procedures based on behavioural principles  basic principals derived from experimental research with laboratory animals  this scientific study of behaviour is called = EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR OR BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS  scientific study of human behaviour to help ppl change behaviour in meaningful ways is called = APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS  emphasis on current environmental events  involves assessing and modifying the current environmental events that are functionally related to the behaviour  CONTROLLING VARIABLES = events that can be modify the behaviour  produce a desired change in the behaviour  Precise description of behavior modification procedure  involves specific changes in environmental events that are related to the behavior  for the procedure do be effective each time, the specific changes in environmental events must occur each time  Treatment implemented by people in everyday life  implemented by people like teachers, parents, job supervisors or others to help ppl change their behavior (they should have sufficient training)  Measurement of behavior change  measuring the behavior before and after intervention > document the behavior change resulting from the procedures  De-emphasis on past events as causes of behavior  although information on past events is useful, knowledge of current controlling variables is most relevant to developing effective behavior modification interventions bc those var
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