Some Areas of E▯ective Application
Prologue Ken, a 7 year old boy, has Attention Deﬁcit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He leaves the table or kicks
his sister during dinner at home. He also is leaving his desk at school. In order to change his behaviours, his parents
and teacher gave him reinforcements (playing games, TV, dessert) to choose from IF he followed the rules. This
technique seemed to improve his behaviour.
Parenting and Parent–Child Relationships
A 4 year-old child name Tim wants some candy while shopping with his mother. When he begins to behave rudely,
his mother has one of two options to stop his actions. A) calmly explain that he will not be getting the candy and his
behaviour is unacceptable or B) use aggressive means to shut him up. Option B) may start a coercive pattern in the
family and interactions. We need to acquire skills to promote constructive family environments.
TRAINING IN GENERAL PARENTING SKILLS
• If you teach parents behaviour analysis skills, it will change their behaviour which, in turn, improve their
• Research show’s that parent who are given this training, are able to deal with various child-rearing
concerns. i.e. stop watching TV, doing chores, etc
• Modelling and discussion are useful methods to teach parents behaviour changing skills.
• The mothers of 3-5 year olds were trained 2 hours a week for 4 weeks. They watched video clips of other
parents portraying positive or negative social behaviours towards their children. Discussions followed.
Improved mother-child relationships immediately and persisted when checked a year later
CORRECTING A CHILD’S EXISTING DIFFICULTIES
• Occurs when a parent postpones getting help until the child's behaviour becomes a problem. We will discuss
two such problem: Oppositional Behaviour and Bed-wetting.
• Oppositional Behaviour refers to acting in a hostile or contrary manner (arguing, ﬁghting, ignoring rules etc)
• 4 year old Eddie always ignores his parents request. In a 20 min play session between Eddie and his
mom, Eddie showed 200 oppositional responses and 30 cooperative ones. His mom disapproved the
negative behaviour but did not reinforce the positives ones. After training the mother to respond kindly to
good acts (smile enthusiastically) and punish the bad ones (isolate him in a room), Eddie’s behaviour
• Applying these techniques are home are broad and durable. (i.e. Good behaviour continues in public as well)
• Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis) is when a 5+ year old wets the bed at least twice a month
This problem stems from not being able to respond to the bladder tension (antecedent) and awakening
• Urine alarm apparatus is an approach where a special sheet is used to trigger a loud bell, whenever it
detects liquid (urine). The bell wakes up a child. This technique uses both respondent and operant
• Operant: punishing the child by waking them up with the bell; reinforcing the child if they did not pee
• Respondent: the bladder tension (CS) used to be neutral but now causes the child to wake up (CS)
• Another method used (operant) is when the parent periodically wakes the child up at night and checks
the bed. Reinforcement is given when it is dry, but the child needs to clean, change PJs, and make the
bed when the it is wet.
Both techniques together work better than individually.
ENHANCING INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS
• Computers are being used as a method of teaching. (kindergarteners how to spell sounds or syllables)
• Programmed Instruction is a self-teaching process in which students actively learn material presented step-
by-step as a series of discrete times with corrective feedback.
Applied Behavior Analysis: Principles and Procedures for Behavior Modiﬁcation! Pirave Eahalaivan • Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) uses a computer to coach students through a series of lessons,
like a human tutor might do. (i.e. examples, questions, feedback).
• Modern technology allows these to become more interactive
• Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) divides the content into units (modules) and tests each student
individually on modules. They must pass with high scores (80%) before they can move on.
• Sometimes advanced students tutor the other students. This method is proven to be effective.
IMPROVING CLASSROOM CONDUCT
• A group of kindergarteners’ on-task behaviours was observed. It was noted that the antecedents, vigorous
play periods before an activity and crowds in an activity, lower a students on-task behaviours.
• Consequences such as punishing or ignoring bad behaviour, and encouraging and reinforcing good
behaviour improved students’ behaviour.
• Teachers’ who are trained in using behaviour changing principles have better classroom environments and
their students excel academically.
Instruction for People With Developmental Disabilities
Developmental Disability is referred to people with mental retardation or autism (in this book). They have a great
difﬁculty in learning almost all skills: mo