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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.pdf

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek

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Chapter 4 Some Areas of E▯ective Application Prologue Ken, a 7 year old boy, has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He leaves the table or kicks his sister during dinner at home. He also is leaving his desk at school. In order to change his behaviours, his parents and teacher gave him reinforcements (playing games, TV, dessert) to choose from IF he followed the rules. This technique seemed to improve his behaviour. Parenting and Parent–Child Relationships A 4 year-old child name Tim wants some candy while shopping with his mother. When he begins to behave rudely, his mother has one of two options to stop his actions. A) calmly explain that he will not be getting the candy and his behaviour is unacceptable or B) use aggressive means to shut him up. Option B) may start a coercive pattern in the family and interactions. We need to acquire skills to promote constructive family environments. TRAINING IN GENERAL PARENTING SKILLS • If you teach parents behaviour analysis skills, it will change their behaviour which, in turn, improve their children’s behaviour. • Research show’s that parent who are given this training, are able to deal with various child-rearing concerns. i.e. stop watching TV, doing chores, etc • Modelling and discussion are useful methods to teach parents behaviour changing skills. • The mothers of 3-5 year olds were trained 2 hours a week for 4 weeks. They watched video clips of other parents portraying positive or negative social behaviours towards their children. Discussions followed. Improved mother-child relationships immediately and persisted when checked a year later • CORRECTING A CHILD’S EXISTING DIFFICULTIES • Occurs when a parent postpones getting help until the child's behaviour becomes a problem. We will discuss two such problem: Oppositional Behaviour and Bed-wetting. • Oppositional Behaviour refers to acting in a hostile or contrary manner (arguing, fighting, ignoring rules etc) • 4 year old Eddie always ignores his parents request. In a 20 min play session between Eddie and his mom, Eddie showed 200 oppositional responses and 30 cooperative ones. His mom disapproved the negative behaviour but did not reinforce the positives ones. After training the mother to respond kindly to good acts (smile enthusiastically) and punish the bad ones (isolate him in a room), Eddie’s behaviour improved. • Applying these techniques are home are broad and durable. (i.e. Good behaviour continues in public as well) • Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis) is when a 5+ year old wets the bed at least twice a month This problem stems from not being able to respond to the bladder tension (antecedent) and awakening • • Urine alarm apparatus is an approach where a special sheet is used to trigger a loud bell, whenever it detects liquid (urine). The bell wakes up a child. This technique uses both respondent and operant conditioning components. • Operant: punishing the child by waking them up with the bell; reinforcing the child if they did not pee • Respondent: the bladder tension (CS) used to be neutral but now causes the child to wake up (CS) • Another method used (operant) is when the parent periodically wakes the child up at night and checks the bed. Reinforcement is given when it is dry, but the child needs to clean, change PJs, and make the bed when the it is wet. Both techniques together work better than individually. • Education ENHANCING INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS • Computers are being used as a method of teaching. (kindergarteners how to spell sounds or syllables) • Programmed Instruction is a self-teaching process in which students actively learn material presented step- by-step as a series of discrete times with corrective feedback. Applied Behavior Analysis: Principles and Procedures for Behavior Modification! Pirave Eahalaivan • Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) uses a computer to coach students through a series of lessons, like a human tutor might do. (i.e. examples, questions, feedback). • Modern technology allows these to become more interactive • Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) divides the content into units (modules) and tests each student individually on modules. They must pass with high scores (80%) before they can move on. • Sometimes advanced students tutor the other students. This method is proven to be effective. IMPROVING CLASSROOM CONDUCT • A group of kindergarteners’ on-task behaviours was observed. It was noted that the antecedents, vigorous play periods before an activity and crowds in an activity, lower a students on-task behaviours. • Consequences such as punishing or ignoring bad behaviour, and encouraging and reinforcing good behaviour improved students’ behaviour. • Teachers’ who are trained in using behaviour changing principles have better classroom environments and their students excel academically. Instruction for People With Developmental Disabilities Developmental Disability is referred to people with mental retardation or autism (in this book). They have a great difficulty in learning almost all skills: mo
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