Textbook Notes (368,326)
Canada (161,799)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)

Chatpter 8.pdf

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Amanda Uliaszek

CHAPTER 8 -ANTECEDENTS: STIMULUS CONTROL Prologue: Hundreds of thousands of accidents occur at stop signs each year, producing tens of thousands of incapacitating injuries and about 3,000 deaths. What can be done to increase safe driving practices and reduce accidents at stop signs? Ron Van Houten and Richard Retting conducted a study to examine ways to manage antecedent stimuli to increase cautious driving behavior at stop signs - at the bottom of stop signs at three intersections where that had been at least four crashes in a three-year period, they installed either a sign saying “LOOK BOTH WAYS” or a sign that used LED technology to create animated eyes scanning to the left and right (with no words) when a vehicle approached. During the intervention, although the LOOK BOTH WAYS sign had little effect, the LED sign noticeably increased drivers’coming to a full stop and decreased conflicts and increased looking right only modestly (perhaps because it was already occurring at a fairly high level at baseline). These findings show that antecedents affect behavior and vary in the degree to which they are effective. Setting the Occasion for Behavior antecedents - cues that precede and set the occasion for a behavior - they lead us to do, think, or feel something example: if you notice that you are thirsty and see a water fountain, these two cues set the occasion for you to use the fountain to get a drink example: when you hear a radio announcer say that one of your favorite recordings is about to be played, you stop what you are doing and turn up the volume - in the past, hearing this recording gave you great enjoyment •we learn cues that tell us when and where to perform or not perform certain responses by linking the cues with the behavior and its consequences Types ofAntecedents Our behavior happens in a context that includes objects, other people, and internal events, such as feeling hungry; anything in the context that arouses behavior is a stimulus • antecedents can involve any of out senses • the effects of particular antecedents can differ from one person to the next - for example, some students never raise their hands when a teacher asks a question, and some students raise their hands only when they are sure they know the answer Overt and Covert Antecedents Overt - open to or directly observable through our senses Covert - internal and not open to observations Immediate and Distant Antecedents Immediate antecedents - present shortly before the behavior occurs, such as when you hear someone in a building yell, “Fire!” and you head toward an exit right away Distant antecedents - precede the behavior by several
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