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Chapter 9

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Amanda Uliaszek

CHAPTER 9 - MOTIVATION Prologue: People use the idea of motivation frequently to: • explain differences in peoples behaviors, • account for people’s preferences for different activities, • assign responsibility for people’s actions, • explain why people persevere despite obstacles and adversity Defining Motivation motivation - “the act or process of motivating” - “to provide with a motive” Traditional views Psychologists often divide the concept of motivation into two parts: drives (which are mainly unconditioned and biologically based such as hunger and thirst) and motives (which are at least partially learned and psychologically or socially based, such as desire for money and the things it buys) Broad motives achievement motive - the desire to success and make significant and valuable accomplishments Desire and readiness to change desire to change is considered a motive, and assessing it can be important in therapy, especially if the client will be applying self-management techniques, such as reinforcement stages of change model - describes a series of five stages through which people’s motivation and intention to modify a specific behavior, such as exercising, progress in readiness to change • at lowest stage, person has no interest in changing the behavior • at the highest stage, person has completed the change and is working to maintain it • people at an intermediate stage called preparation have made the commitment to modify the behavior and are in the process of planning the efforts they will use to achieve that goal in the near future Abehavior analytic view • manipulate motivation as an antecedent • we want to enhance the motivation of individuals in interventions to modify their behavior - enhanced motivation increased the likelihood of behavior change Motivating Operations motivating operations - procedures that temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on behavior and performance of behaviors that normally lead to those consequences • two effects of MOs: changing the effectiveness of
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