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Chapter 9

CHAPTER 9 review.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER 10 – Shaping Shaping happens naturally – babbling to imitating to talking, for example. Shaping: used to develop a target behaviour that a person does not currently exhibit. Uses differential reinforcement and successive approximations.  Differential reinforcement: involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinction. One particular behaviour is reinforced and all other behaviours are not reinforced in a particular situation. As result, the behaviour that is reinforced increases and the behaviours that are not reinforced decrease through extinction.  Successive approximation: shaping steps. To begin shaping: identify an existing behaviour that is an approximation of the target behaviour = starting behaviours or first approximation. You reinforce this behaviour = person exhibits this behaviour more often. You then stop reinforcing this behaviour and, as a part of extinction burst, novel behaviours occur. You pick the behaviour that is the closer approximation to the target behaviour = person exhibits this behaviour more often and the previous behaviour less often. This process of differential reinforcement continues until the person finally exhibits the target behaviour. Successive Approximations to Lever-pressing 1. The rat moves to the side where the lever is located 2. The rat faces the lever 3. The rat approaches the lever 4. The rat rears up on its hind legs 5. The rat makes a movement towards the lever with a paw 6. The rat touches the lever 7. The rat presses the lever Applications of Shaping Shaping can be used for: 1. Generating a novel behaviour a. Language in young child, lever-pressing in a rat 2. Reinstating a previously exhibited behaviour a. Learning to walk again with a patient that refused PT 3. Changing some dimension of an existing behaviour Research on Shaping Shown that shaping
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