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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11 review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER 11 – Chaining Behavioural Chain: a complex behaviour consisting of many component behaviours that occur together in a sequence Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains Stimulus-response chain: another name for a behavioural chain, due to the fact that each behavioural chain consists of a number of individual stimulus-response components that occur together in a sequence.  Each behaviour or response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an S for the next response in the chain. Task Analysis Task Analysis: process of analyzing a behavioural chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-response components 1. Identify all the behaviours necessary to perform the task and write them down 2. Identify the S associated with the behaviour in each task Ways to identify the right sequence of behaviours:  Watch someone do the task and record each of the stimulus-response components  Ask an expert to explain all of the components of the task  Performing the task yourself and record each of the component responses o You will probably get the most information from this method A task analysis can be revised: if a learner is having difficulty with a certain behaviour in the chain, it can be useful to break down that behaviour into two or more behaviours. If the learner can master larger units of behaviour, two or more components can be combined into one.  It doesn’t matter how many steps there are – it depends on the learner. Chaining procedures: strategies for teaching complex tasks (behavioural chains)  Involve the systematic application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-response component of the chain. Backward Chaining Def.: Using prompting and fading to teach the last behaviour in the chain first. By starting with the last behaviour in the chain, the learner completes the chain on every learning level. Once the last behaviour is learnt, the next-to-last behaviour is taught. ETC. ETC.  Typically used with those who have learning disabilities Example: D 1. S 1 – Staff member says, “Jerry, let’s play darts”  R1 – Jerry walks over to the dartboard D 2. S 2 – Standing near a line on the floor 8 feet from the dartboard  R2 – Jerry walks up to the line and stands facing the dartboard with his toes touching the line Order of learning D 3. S 3 – Standing at the line with a dart on an adjacent table  R3 – Jerry grasps dart between thumb and first finger, with the point facing the board 4. S 4 – Standing at the line and holding the dart between thumb and first finger  R4 – Jerry bends his elbow so that the forearm is at a 90-degree angle 5. S 5 – standing at the line with dart in hand and elbow bent  R5 – Jerry thrusts forearm and hand toward the board and releases dart when arm is extended  reinforcer – dart hits board Forward Chaining Def.: Teaching the first component then the second component etc. Similarities between Backward and Forward Chaining  Both are used to teach a chain of behaviour  To use both procedures, you first have to conduct a task analysis that breaks down the chain into stimulus-response components  Both teach behaviour (one component of the chain) at a time and chain the behaviours together  Both procedures use prompting and fading to teach each component Differences between Backward and Forward Chaining  Forward chaining teaches the first component first, while backward chaining teaches the last component first  With backward chaining, the learner completes the chain in every trial and receives the natural reinforcer in every trial. With forward chaining, artificial reinforcers (praise) are used until the last component of the chain is taught. Natural reinforcer occurs after last behaviour of chain. Total Task Presentation Def.: The complex chain of behaviours is taught as a single unit. Total task is completed in each learning trial. Use promptin
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