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Chapter 12

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 12 – Behavioural Skills Training Procedures Behaviour skills training: a procedure consisting of instructions, modelling, behavioural rehearsal, and feedback that is used to teach new behaviours or skills Examples of Behavioural Skills Training Procedures  Teaching a woman to say ‘no’ to pushy coworkers  Teaching children to avoid abduction Components of the Behavioural Skills Training Procedure Modelling Def.: correct behaviour is demonstrated to the learner. The learner observes the model’s behaviour and then imitates the model.  For this to be effective the learner has to be able to pay attention to the model and perform the behaviour demonstrated. Children’s behaviour of imitating models is reinforced many times. This means that a model’s behaviour becomes an S for imitation and imitation becomes a generalized response class = imitation is likely to occur in the future when a behaviour is modelled for a learner. Live modelling: another person demonstrates the behaviour Symbolic modelling: correct behaviour is demonstrated on videotape/audiotape/maybe cartoon or movie. Factors influencing the effectiveness of modelling:  When model exhibits behaviour, it should result in a successful outcome (reinforcer) for the model  The model should resemble the people observing the model or should have high status  The complexity of the model’s behaviour should be appropriate to the developmental/ability level of the learner  The modelled behaviour must occur in the proper context. Should be modelled in the real situation or in the context of a role-play of the real situation  The modelled behaviour should be repeated as often as necessary for the learner to imitate it correctly  Behaviour should be modelled in a variety of ways/situations  Learner should have opportunity to rehearse the behaviour ASAP after observing the model. Instructions Def.: description of appropriate behaviour for learner.  To be effective, instructions should be specific. For a chain of behaviours, they should specify each component in the chain. Should also specify circumstances for the behaviour. Influencing the effectiveness:  Should be presented at a level that the learner can understand  Should be delivered by someone who has credibility with the learner  The learner should have the opportunity to rehearse the behaviour ASAP after receiving instructions  Should be paired with modelling with observing behaviour will enhance learning  Should only be given when learner is paying attention  Learner should repeat the instructions so that teacher can be sure that learner heard them. Repeating = more likely to remember instructions later to self- prompt. Rehearsal Def.: Opportunity for learner to practice the behaviour Important because:  Teacher cannot be sure that learner has learned behaviour until it is demonstrated  Provides opportunity to enforce the behaviour  Provides opportunity to assess and correct any errors in performance Effectiveness:  Behaviour should be rehearsed in proper context. This facilitates generalization.  Rehearsals should be programmed for success. Learners should practice easy behaviours first then moved on to harder behaviours  Rehearsal of the correct behaviour should always be followed immediately by reinforcement.  Rehearsals that are part correct or are incorrect should be followed by corrective feedback  Behaviour should be rehearsed until it is demonstrated correctly at least a few times Feedback Def.: Involves praise or other reinforcers for correct performance. When necessary, may also involve correction of errors or further instruction in how to improve performance. Influencing effectiveness:  Should be given immediately after behaviour  Should always involve praise (or other reinforcers) for some aspect of the behaviour. Even if incorrect, praise for at least trying.  Praise should be descriptive  When providing corrective feedback, do not be negative  Praise
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