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Chapter 15

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 15 PSYB45 Chapter 15 Differential Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior  DRA: behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors o Desirable behavior is reinforced and undesirable behavior are not reinforced (extinction) Getting Mrs. William to Be Positive  Mrs. William lived in a nursing home and always complained about everything  To get Mrs. William to be more positive the nurses had to 1. Say something positive to Mrs. William when they saw her 2. When Mrs. William said something positive, they were to pay attention to her 3. When she said something negative, the nurses had to be too busy or excuse themselves to listen to her  Procedure worked When to Use DRA  Three questions to determine if DRA is appropriate 1. Do you want to increase rate of desirable behavior 2. Is behavior already occurring atleast occassionaly 3. Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behavior  If behavior is not occurring, DRA on its own cannot create this behavior o Shaping or prompting can be used initially to evoke the behavior o DRA can then be used to strengthen and maintain behavior  If you have no control over reinforcer then DRA can’t be used How to Use DRA Define the Desirable Behavior  Identify clearly and define the desirable behavior that is to be increased with DRA Define the Undesirable Behavior  Clear behavioral definition of undesirable behaviors ensures you are not using reinforcement for the wrong behaviors Identify the Reinforcer  Knowing the reinforcer will help reinforce appropriate behaviors and extinct inappropriate behaviors  Have to chose a reinforcer specific to the person with whom you are working with  Possible to use reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable behavior since it has been proven to be effective o Will help decrease problem behavior as well  Finding what activities or interests subject pursues can also help find reinforcer o Using Premack principle to allow a student to play video games (hobby they enjoy) after they finish their homework  Asking subject questions about what they like doing can also provide some info on a useful reinforcer o Asking teachers/parents who know the subject well can also provide info on reinforcer Chapter 15 PSYB45  Preference assessment: trying out a variety of different stimuli and see which ones function as reinforcers o Researcher identified a number of potential reinforcers, presents potential reinforcers and records which ones he or she approaches o Three types:  Single stimulus assessment  Paired stimulus assessment  Multiple stimulus assessment  Reinforcer assessment: determining if an time did in fact function as a reinforcer by delivering it contingent on a behavior and show that the behavior increased  Single stimulus assessment: each potential reinforcer is presented one at a time to see whether the individual approaches the stimulus or not o After stimulus has been presented many times, researcher calculates the percentage of times that the individual approached each stimulus o Indicates which stimuli are likely to be reinforcers  Paired stimulus assessment (AKA paired choice/forced choice procedure): two potential reinforcers are presented to individual and researcher records which stimulus individual approaches o Percentage of frequency is calculated  Multiple stimulus assessment: an array of potential reinforcers is presented to the individual o Researcher records which potential reinforcer the individual approaches or chooses first o Stimulus is then removed from the array and researcher records which stimulus individual chooses next  This continues and each stimuli is presented a number of times before it is removed o Multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO)  Another technique to assess reinforcers is to make each potential reinforcer contingent on an operant response o If frequency/duration of response increases when stimulus is contingent on the response then that stimulus is a reinforcer Reinforce the Desirable Behavior Immediately and Consistently  Reinforce behavior immediately after it occurs and every time it occurs (atl east initially) o Delays or inconsistency can make DRA less effective Eliminate Reinforcement for the Undesirable Behaviors  If undesirable behavior cannot be eliminated, it should at least be minimized  Desirable and undesirable behaviors are concurrent operants that are maintained by concurrent schedules of reinforcement  Behavior that results in greater reinforcement will increase relative to undesirable behaviors Use Intermittent Reinforcement to Maintain the Target Behavior  Continuous reinforcement for desirable behavior is used in early stages of DRA  Once desirable behavior is occurring consistently and undesirable behaviors occur rarely, schedule should be thinned to reinforce behavior intermittently Program for Generalization  Intermittent schedule or reinforcement and a program for generalization should occur  Generalization: target behavior should occur outside the training situation in all relevant stimulus situations o If this does not happen it will deem DRA procedure as ineffective Chapter 15 PSYB45  Target behavior should be differentially reinforced in as many relevant situations as possible by as many relevant people as possible to program for generalization Use Differential Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors  PAGE 293 – 295 Variations of DRA  Differential reinforcement of an incompatible behavior (DRI): alternative behavior is physically incompatible with the problem behavior and therefore, the two behaviors cannot occur at the same time o Example: head slapping; any alternative behavior using the hands would be incompatible  These incompatible tasks would be the alternative behavior replacing head slapping once head slapping was extinct  Differential reinforcement of communication (DRC)/functional communication training: individual with problem behavior learns to amek a communication response that is functionally equivalent to the problem behavior o Communication produces same reinforcing outcome as the problem behavior, there is no longer any reason for the problem behavior to occur o In DRC, individual with problem behavior reinforced by attention would learn to ask for attention o Makes problem behavior a more efficient variation Research on DRA  Leitenberg, Burchard, Fuller and Lysaght investigated DRA procedures for increasing appropriate behaviors and decreasing sibling conflict involving physical aggression, verbal attacks, screaming and crying  Six families partic
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