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Emotions ch 4.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

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Emotions ch 4 five kinds of nonverbal behavior -nonverbal communication -Ekman organized the language of nonverbal behavior into five categories -emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words ex: peace sign -emblems vary in their meaning across cultures -illustrators: a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech and often makes it vivid and visual, we make hand gestures most of the time when we speak, we also make facial gestures -regulators: are nonverbal behaviors that we use to coordinate conversation. People look and point at and orient their bodies toward people whom they want to start speaking -self adaptor: nervous behaviors people engage in with no seeming intention, to release nervous energy -there are nonverbal expressions or displays of emotion: signals in the face, voice body and touch that convey emotion Facial expressions of emotions The markers of emotional expressions -several characteristics have been identified that differentiate emotional expressions from other nonverbal behavior -expressions of emotions tend to be fairly brief -facial expressions of emotion involved involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce when they feel like it and cannot suppress even when instructed to do so -involuntary actions that accompany emotional expression have a different neuroanatomical basis than voluntary facial actions such as the furrowed brow or lip press -emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues in the displays of other species -if emotions derive from our evolutionary heritage then certain elements of human affective displays should be seen in other species Studies of the universitality of facial expressions -why emotional expressions have the appearance that they do -principle of serviceable habits: expressive behaviors that have led to rewards will re-occur n the future -principle of antithesis: holds that opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions -principle of nervous discharge: states that excess undirected energy is released in random expression such as face touches.. -darwin advanced his claim that facial expressions of emotion, as part of our evolutionary heritage, are human universals -encoding hypothesis: if emotions are universal the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society worldwide -decoding hypothesis: if there are universal emotions, people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in the same ways -in a study, across 5 cultures, participants achieved accuracy rates between 80 and 90 percent for the six emotions -but chance guessing could create accuracy, and critics noted that participants in other societies had all seen American media and so were not really representative of isolated and distinct cultures -ekman relied on a judgment paradigm known as the dashiell method, in which he devised an emotion appropriate story for each of the six emotions -he presented photos of 3 different expressions along with a story that matched one of the expressions -results from these 2 studies largely confirmed darwins earlier ideas about the universitality of emotional expression -this was even true for children -recognition of the 6 facial expressions u
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