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Chapter 9

Emotions chapter 9.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

Emotions chapter 9 Social goals and social emotions -for many theorists there are 2 fundamental dimensions to human social life that provide as it were, two coordinates: Empedocles, love and strife; freud, sexuality and death, humankinds creative and destructive tendencies; recent theorists, cooperation and affiliation and prosocial behavior then competition dominance and antisocial behavior -western thought anger aggression and revenge have been seen as unavoidable aspects of human character -stoics saw anger as the emotion that was most essential to master -buddhists anger was a destructive emotion -lorenz argued that aggression Is an innate drive -ardrey, we are programmed for aggression in defense of territories ranging from a seat on the bus to a nation Three kinds of social motivation: attachment affiliation and assertion -attachment: its function if primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant -affiliation: described in the research literature as warmth or affection. It draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related -assertion: the motivation to rise in the social hierarchy and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us, motivation of competition and of conflict -typical positive emotions associated with the presence of attachment figure is trust comfort and reassurance while loss produces anxiety and distress -positive emotions associated with affiliation are affection warmth and liking whereas loss would be less affection and production of sadness and grieving -emotion of assertion is anger, loss of status is accompanied by shame or embarrassment Attachment and its separation from affiliation -attachment is essentially protective -early childhood remains the most vulnerable period of life -ainsworth hypothesized that infants developed their sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive -sensitivity, affiliations and warmth are fundamentally important human dev but they involve different processes than of protection ex: babies seen their mothers approaching with open arms showed joy and an activation of the left side of the cortex -the system activated here is part of affiliation -with separation changes in a separate system on the right side of the cortex -ainsworth concluded that although America mothers were warmer their responsiveness to childrens distress was less than the Ugandan mothers -system of affiliation and warmth is built on positive reward associated with the system of touch -people express more emotions in relationships that are communal Emotions as social -emotions are social in several diff ways -emotions are evaluations or appraisals of events that affect different kinds of social goals -emotions are reappraised so that the emotions become amalgams of what started them and the social negotiations they have occasioned -emo
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