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Michael Inzlicht

Emotions- ch1 Intro -The Wests most prominent early theorists of emotions, the Epicureans and the Stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damaging -emotions serve important functions especially in our social lives Nineteenth century founders *page 28 for summary table Charles Darwin: the evolutionary approach -God had given humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animals -we ourselves are animals -allowed to realize the importance of cross cultural studies and he was one of the first to use questionnaires -questions to guide emotions: how are emotions expressed in humans and other animals and where do our emotions come from -he conclude that emotional expressions derived largely from habits that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful -emotional expressions showed continuity of adult human behavioral mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancy -darwin traced other expression to infancy such as crying and patterns of adults affection have an influence when we are young on emotions in the future -our emotions link us to our past, the past of our species and to our own infancy -emotions serve as the first means of communication between mother and her infant William James: the bodily approach -he said when we perceive the object of fear, such as a bear, then the emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react to that fact -his theory Is really about the nature of emotional experience -the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses -our experience of many emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system -what are the distinct physiological reactions associated with the different emotions? -emotions give color and warmth to experience Sigmund Freud: the psychoanalytic approach -certain events, usually of a sexual kind can be so damaging that they leave psychological scars that can affect the rest of our lives -emotions are the core of many pathologies -freuds work prompter john bowlby’s theory of attachment Philosophical and literary approaches Aristotle: the conceptual approach -emotions are connected with action -emtions depend on what we believe that they are evaluations so we are responsible for our emotions because we are responsible for our beliefs and valuations of the world -three principles:  a hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad  people are persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions  people are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful -when speaking to persuade, you must know something about the people to whom you speak -our experience depends on judgment, emotions are judgments they are subjective engagements in the world -two important effects of tragic drama:  people are moved emotionally  we can experience what Aristotle called catharsis mistranslated as purification and purgation but it meant clearification, the clearing away of obstacles to understanding out emotions Renee Descartes -six fundamental emotions- wonder, desire, joy, love hatred and sadness- which occur in the thinking aspect of ourselves that he called the soul -they are closely connected to our bodies -emotions from other perceptions about events that happen in the outside world and perceptions that arise from events within the body -emotions cannot be entirely controlled by thinking, but they can be regulated by thoughts especially thoughts which are true -like Aristotle, Descartes suggested that the emotions depend on how we evaluate events -his idea is then that emotions are usually functional but can sometimes be dysfunctional -blood gives rise to hope and vigor- sanguine, phlegm gives rise to anger-phlegmatic, yellow bile gives rise to anger-choleric and black bile gives rise to despair-melancholy -I think therefore I am -emotions arise in the mind enable our plans and affect our bodies -differentiated them from bodily states like hunger and pain George Elliot: the literary approach -our emotions can act as a sort of compass -we understand our emotions differently from those of other people Brain science psychology, sociology Walter Cannon and Walter Hess -cannon’s principle evidence was that if James were right then when the viscera were served from the brain or laboratory animals one would expect a reduction in their emotions, but no such reduction occurred -when the cerebral cortex was severed from the lower parts of the brain or removed altogether the result was an animal that showed very intense emotions -damasio’s book takes cannon’s idea forward to show that the cortex in particular the frontal region, exercises an important modulating function on human emotions -propensities characteristics of emotions can be induced experimentally by electrically stim
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