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Chapter 6

Study Guide For Chapter 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christian Campbell

PSYB45:Behaviour Modification CHAPTER 6: Developing Behavioural Resistance Intermittent Reinforcement: The maintenance of behaviour by reinforces it occasionally rather than every time it occurs. Schedule of Reinforcement: rule specifying which occurrence of a given behaviour, if any will be reinforced. the simplest form of this continuous reinforcement (crf) if each behaviour is reinforced Extinction: the opposite of continuous reinforcement in this process, no given behaviour is reinforced and therefore, the behaviour is more likely to decrease. **Many events in the natural environment are not reinforced continuously** Intermittent reinforce schedule: any rules specifying a procedure for occasionally reinforcing behaviour. there are an unlimited number of such schedules. Because each procedures its own characteristic behaviour pattern, different schedules are suitable for different types of application. Certain schedules are more practical than others (e.g., some are more time consuming or labour intensive than others. Acquisition: while a behaviour is being conditioned or learned Maintenance: after the behaviour has been learned, it is then goes to the maintenance phase it is more preferred to provide continuous reinforcement phase and to provide intermittent reinforcement during maintenance (during acquisition). Intermittent schedules have several advantages over continuous reinforcement for maintaining behaviour: 1) reinforce remains effective for a longer time because satiation takes longer. 2) reinforcers reinforced intermittently takes longer for extinguish. 3) individuals work more consistently on a certain intermittent schedule 4) behaviour that has been reinforced intermittently is more likely to persist when it generalizes to the natural environment. there are four types of intermittent schedule for maintaining and reinforcing behaviour. Free-operant procedure: where an individual is free to respond respectably meaning that there are no constraints on successive responses. Discrete-trials procedure: a distinct stimulus is presented prior to an opportunity for a response to occur and be followed by reinforcement. RATIO SCHEDULES www.notesolution.comFixed-ratio (FR) schedules: in an FR schedule, reinforcement occurs each time a set number of responses of a particular type are emitted. Ratio Strain: the deterioration of responding from increasing an FR schedule too rapidly is sometimes referred to as ratio strain. The higher the ratio at which an individual is expected to perform, the more important it is to approach it gradually through exposure to lower ratios. The optimal ratio value that will maintain a high rate of response without producing ratio strain must be found by trial and error. FR Schedules, when introduced gradually, produce a high steady rate until reinforcement, followed by post-reinforcement pause. The length of the post- reinforcement pause depends on the value of the FR-the higher the value, the longer the pause. FR schedules also produce high resistance to extinction. Piece-rate pay: paying an industrial worker for a specified number of completed parts. Variable-ratio (VR) schedule: the number of responses required to produce reinforcement, changes unpredictably from one reinforcement to the next. The number of responses required for each reinforcement in a VR schedule varies around some mean value, and this value is specified in the designation of that particular VR schedule. **Look at page 78 first parsgraph salesperson
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