Textbook Notes (368,330)
Canada (161,803)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Chapter 12

Study Guide For Chapter 12

4 Pages
84 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment The principle of Punishment - Punisher o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the behaviour to decrease in frequency - Punishment o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation - For behaviour modifiers, “punishment” is simply a technical word referring to the application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that individual Types of Punishment - Pain-Inducing Punisher o Also referred to as physical punisher o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers ! Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning - Reprimands o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a punisher - Time-outs o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour o Two types of time-outs ! Exclusionary time-out • Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation in which reinforcement is occurring • Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose • Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not be very long ! Nonexclusionary time-out • Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated with less reinforcement • Ignoring a child when he/she is not doing something right www.notesolution.com ! Response Cost • Removal of a specified amount of reinforcer immediately following a particular behaviour • Can be used in modification program in which learners earn tokens as reinforcer • It differs from time-out in that there is no change in prevailing reinforcement contingencies when its administered • In response cost a reinforcer is taken away following an undesirable response • In extinction procedure, a reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response • Direct acting effect o Is the decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences (within 30 seconds) • Indirect-acting o Weakening of a response that is followed by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment - Maximizing the conditions for a desirable alternative response o To decrease an undesirable response, it is maximally effective to concurrently increase some desirable alternative response that will compete with the undesirable behaviour to be eliminated o You should attempt to identify powerful SDs that control the desirable behaviour and present these to increase the likelihood that the behaviour will occur o Influence the user of positive reinforcement to bring about good behaviour and avoid punishment - Minimizing the Cause of the Response to be Punished o Try to identify the current stimulus control of the undesirable behaviour o May identify existing reinforcers that are maintaining the desirable behaviour o Minimizing the causes of the undesirable behaviour while maximizing the conditions for a desirable alternative behaviour may cause the latter to compete so strongly with the former that is greatly reduced or completely suppressed without the use of punishment - Selecting a Punisher o The more strong or intense the punishing stimulus, the more effective it will be in decreasing the undesirable behaviour o The verbal reprimands may function as an SD for subsequent desirable behaviour of the child, regardless of the effect of the verbal reprimand as a punisher or a reinforcer on the preceding undesirable behaviour www.notesolution.com o Punisher should be one that can be presented in a manner such that it is no way paired with positive reinforcement o Rather than selecting just one punisher, it may be more effective to select several that are varied over successive instances of the undesirable behaviour - Adding Antecedents (Including rules) for Punishment o SDP is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished o If in the presence of SDP a punisher is consistently applied following a response, then that response is less likely to occur when the SDP is encountered - Delivering the Punisher o Punishment is most effective when the punisher is presented immediately following every instance of the undesirable behaviour Should Punishment be Used? - A number of organizations are against the idea of using punishment to improve desirable behaviour - Sometimes best way to prevent self-injurious behaviour is through punishment. For example, developmental disabled children who injure themselves can suppress their behaviour through punishment and later positive reinforcement - Punishment can have a number of potentially harmful effects: o Aggressive behaviour ! Punishment tends to elicit aggressive behaviour ! So when punishing an individual, we should not be surprised if they attack someone else o Emotional Behaviour ! Can create other undesirable emotional side effects, such as crying and general fearfulness o Escape and avoidance behaviour ! May cause the situation and people associated with the aversive stimulus to become conditioned punishers ! When you punish a child when making mistakes in reading, anything associated with the situation will be considered punisher for the child and he/she may instead run away from everything having to do with the learning situation o No new behaviour ! Punishment does not establish any new behaviour, it only suppresses old behaviour o Modeling of Punishment ! Children often model or imitate adults ! If adults apply punishment to children, they might do the same to others o Continued use of Punishment www.notesolution.com ! It may cause the punisher to heavily rely on it and neglect the use of positive reinforcement for a desirable behaviour Behaviour Modification - Because punishers are so easy to abuse and because their application can have a number of potentially harmful side effects, we recommend that punishment be used as last resort - Behaviour modifiers should consider designing punishment programs only when: o Clear steps are taken to maximize the conditions for a desirable alternative response and to minimize the cause of the response to be punished o The behaviour is very maladaptive and it is the client’s best interest to bring about rapid behaviour change o The client provides informed consent the intervention meets ethical standards o Punishment is applied according to clear guidelines o Program includes safeguards to protect their client Pitfall of Punishment - There are instances in which punishment is applied by people who are not aware that they are doing so - Punishment should be applied only in conjunction with positive reinforcement for a desirable behaviour, and only under the conditions described in the previous subsections www.notesolution.comChapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment The principle of Punishment - Punisher o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the behaviour to decrease in frequency - Punishment o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation - For behaviour modifiers, punishment is simply a technical word referring to the application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that individual Types of Punishment - Pain-Inducing Punisher o Also referred to as physical punisher o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning - Reprimands o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a punisher - Time-outs o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour o Two types of time-outs Exclusionary time-out Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation in which reinforcement is occurring Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not be very long Nonexclusionary time-out Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated with less reinforcement Ignoring a child when heshe is not doing something right www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit