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CH 5-7 Reinforcement, Extinction, Punishment.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
CH 5 Reinforcement: Positive or Negative Reinforcement – consequence of a behavior strengthens the behavior Reinforcer – stimulus introduced or changed serves as consequence of reinforcement Natural reinforcers – happen spontaneously as a normal part of everyday events & aren’t planned & given systematically to affect a behavior Automatic reinforcement – behavior produces a reinforce directly, without other people playing a role → maintain repetitive / ritualistic behavioral excesses Programmed reinforcers – within a program if reinforcement with the goal of ↑ specific behavior, eg. High grades for good work in school & wages for satisfactory work on a job Positive reinforcement vs Negative reinforcement (eg. Drinking alcohol ↓ unpleasant feelings) Unconditioned reinforcers (primary reinforcers) – individuals have no learning history with them, eg. Food, water, warmth, ↓ pain Conditioned reinforcers (secondary reinforcers) – learning exp (paired repeatedly with existing reinforcers) → have the ability to strengthen the behavior, eg. $ Types of +ve reinforcers • Tangible reinforcers – material objects • Consumable – we can eat/drink, such as candy, soft drinks o Food can’t be used as intervention in applied behavioral analysis  Depriving people of food can raise ethnical & legal concerns  Consumable reinforcers are difficult & messy to carry around & dispense in everyday settings • Activity reinforcers – o Premack Principle: consequences involve performing high-probability behaviors & these activities will work as reinforcers only for less frequent behaviors o Eg. (Wasik, 1970) Children’s classroom conduct improved when their teacher made the opportunity to play with toys contingent on increasing desirable behaviors & decreasing undesirable ones o Hard to apply since frequency & duration aren’t determined easily • Social behaviors – interpersonal acts that strengthens one’s behaviors, eg. Praise, attention, smile, nod • Feedback – info that assesses or guides people’s performance o +ve feedback – behavior = correct o –ve feedback – correction is needed o Feedback + praise → greater reinforcing effect o Biofeedback = gain voluntary control over body processes • Tokens – conditioned reinforcers because they can be accumulated & exchanged for backup reinforcers , which are usually some form of tangible, consumable, activity & social rewards o Advantages: bridging the delay between performing behavior & getting reward o Offering the possibility of a variety of backup reinforcers Factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement 1 Reward & timing • quantity vs quality o in positive reinforcement, quality & quantity ↑, reward value ↑ o in negative reinforcement, quantity = amount of which the aversive stimulus is reduced; effective when the behavior reduces a very aversive stimulus than when it reduces a milder one 2 Motivation • motivational operations (MOs): procedure that alters the effectiveness of a consequence in behavior & performance of behaviors that normally lead to those consequences • deprivation – restricting the access of food → increase hunger & reward value of food • satiation / preloading – eat a large amount of food to decrease the reward value of food Negative reinforcement in escape & avoidance Escape conditioning = ↓ aversive stimulus we’re currently exp, eg. Putting on a coat to reduce cold • can be maladaptive Avoidance conditioning = prevent them from exp aversive results • eg. carrying an umbrella when raining is likely • Mowrer: two-factor theory – avoidance involves both respondent + operant conditioning o Dental appointment (NS) + unpleasant exp (US) → distress (UR) o Dental apt → CS, o having a tantrum → cancelling the apt → -ve reinforcement (relieve distress) Problems of using escape & avoidance conditioning • undesirable side effects on person’s behavior • behaviors rewarded through –ve reinforcement = undesirable CH 6 Extinction Extinction = procedure/condition in which a prev. reinforced response no longer receives reinforcement OR a process whereby the rate & force in performing the no-longer reinforced response↓  Extinction for +ve reinforcement = rewards are no longer provided  Extinction for –ve reinforcement = preventing the individual from escaping/avoiding the unpleasant situation Features of extinction  Extinction burst = frustration → pulling the lever rapidly & strongly  Extinction → ↑Aggression & other emotional behaviors  2 ways to curb these problems: instruct the person of the new contingencies in advance & to combine extinction with other methods, such as reinforcement for other actions  Competing response = action that is incompatible or interferes with performance of a target behavior  Alternative behavior  Spontaneous recovery = reappearance of an extinguished behavior o 2 co
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