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CH 8,9,14 Antecedents, Motivation.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

CH 8 Antecedents: Stimulus Control Types of antecedents: • Overt antecedents: observable through our senses o Seeing a dog o Smelling coffee • Covert antecedents: internal, not open to observation o Feeling tired o Saying in your mind o Negative emotions (anger, depression) → compulsive buying → gaining relief • Immediate antecedents: presented shortly before the behavior occurs o Traffic lights: in Chicago, altering the time sequence of yellow & red signals so that second’s signal’s yellow light came on sooner & red light stayed on for a shorter period, more drivers stopped for the yellow or red lights & accident rate declined by more than 36% o Encourage students to play organized games ↓ aggression/bullying • Distant antecedents: presented several min/hours or longer time o They have strong emotional & covert components o Women who have been abused physically might be affected for years by the thoughts • Overt & immediate antecedents are easier to identify than covert & distant ones Antecedent functions • Discriminative stimuli (S ) = A cue that sets the occasion for a particular behavior and consequence o In the presence of SD, the behavior is likely to continue if it was reinforced; occur less frequently if it was punished o Punished for touching the burner when the light was on → avoid touching the burner • Establishing operations = Increases the effectiveness of a particular consequence, which enhances the function of the antecedent o Deprivation = presenting the SD when the person has been without the specific reinforce, such as food, water 1 Stimulus discrimination • Discriminative training = a consequence is admin for a part. Behavior when a specific stimulus is present but not when another stimulus is present o Improve class conduct: the teacher is available to answer questions when she wears a green lei but not when she wearing a red lei • SD: this antecedent → particular consequence • S∆: Other stimuli serve as an antecedent for not doing a behavior • SD vs S∆ o Close friends/family lend you $ = SD; stranger = S∆ Stimulus generalization & equivalence • More similar the other stimuli are to the SD, the more likely we’re to make the response • Use that behavior with similar antecedents in everyday life • Stimulus equivalence = two or more physically diff stimuli serve the same purposes & be used interchangeably • Generalization & equivalence involve learning processes that allow us to connect a variety of antecedent stimuli to a single response without actual training Concept formation • Concept = cognitive category by which we group noticeably diff objects, events, or ideas on the basis of their concrete or abstract commonalities o Concrete: chair o Abstract: love Stimulus control • The behavior tends to occur mainly in the presence of the cue and the occurrence of the cue is present, the behavior is highly likely to occur • Produce habitual, automatic actions in response to antecedents with high stimulus control • Promoting stimulus control: o The person is paying attention to the stimuli (SD) o Training stimulus is easily noticed; diff from other stimuli in size, color, sound or location 2 o The task is straightforward o Contingencies are understandable CH 9 Motivation Traditional views • Broad motives o Achievement motives = the desire to succeed • Desire & readiness to change o Stages of change model  Lowest stage: no interest in changing behavior  Intermediate stage: preparation; commitment to modify the behavior  Highest stage: complete the change & maintain it Behavior analytic view • Focus on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent • Enhance motivation ↑ likelihood of behavior change • Jack Michael: establishing operations = env manipulations that alter the effect of a stimulus as a reinforce & ↑ frequency of behavior Motivating operations • MO = procedures temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforce/punisher [value- altering effect] & performance of behaviors that normally lead to those consequences [behavior-altering effect] • 2 types of MO o Establishing operations (EOs): ↑ effectiveness of behavior; Abolishing operations (AOs): ↓ effectiveness of behavior • 2 types of behavior-altering effect: o evocative effect (↑ behavior) & abative effect (↓ behavior) Establishing & abolishing operations for reinforcement • being deprived of food = EO; consuming food = AO o EO (deprivation) → value-altering effect of ↑ effectiveness of eating & evocative behavior-altering effect 3 o AO (satiation) → value-altering effect of ↓ E & abative behavior-altering effect Establishing & abolishing operations for punishment • ↑ intensity of Pain & other aversive stimuli can serve as EO; ↓ intensity can serve as AO
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