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Chapter

CH 10-12 Shaping and Changing Behavior.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
CH 10 Shaping Shaping = a procedure by which performance of a specific behavior improves because higher & higher criteria are required for successive instances of reinforcement of that behavior Successive approximations • A sequence of behaviors in which the responses become closer & closer to the form & quantity of a well-performed target behavior. Each of these approx. = a step • Once the behavior moved from 1 step to another, the response in a lesser step was no longer reinforced • Allow the behavior to stay at a step for a while, reinforcing the specific response more than 2 time before requiring the movement to the next step • Shaping can also be applied to improve existing skills Qualitative (topographic) shaping • Successively higher standards for performance pertain to the degree to which the responses look/sound/feel like the well-formed behavior Quantitative shaping • Setting criteria for reinforcement to ↑/↓ the quantity of behavior, by changing its frequency, duration, latency or magnitude. Dimension example Frequency Words spelled correctly in a 10-min session Duration Time spent exercising Magnitude (intensity/size) Amount of fruit picked Latency Time elapsing between going to bed & falling asleep Shaping everyday behaviors • Babies cry louder & louder made the parents concerned → parents give in & provide attention = reinforce Aspects of shaping methods • Shaping steps o Gap sizes depends on the difficulty of the task & the person’s abilities; o general rule = gaps should be large enough to produce some challenge & fairly quick progress, but small enough to allow the person to succeed 1 o don’t try to advance to the next step until the person mastered the current one o if the person’s behavior deteriorates since we advance too quickly, we reinforce an earlier approximation to build from there again o if gaps = small, the task becomes boring & inefficient o be flexible enough to speed up or slow down the shaping process as needed • shortcut to shaping o time-consuming & expensive o use physical guidance o use pictures of the behavior or its product o modelling o use instructions • computer-aided shaping o percentile schedules = math formula to determine the criteria for reinforcement & decide whether each instance of the behavior has met the current criterion o software on a handheld computer can process data continuously & decide whether each instance of the behavior has met the current criterion CH 11 Shortcut stimulus control methods Prompting • Prompt = stimuli that supplement the desired SD for a corr behavior ↑ the likelihood that the response will occur • Response prompt = behavior analyst makes a response as a supplement to the SD to induce performance of the target behavior • Physical guidance prompts o Manually moving part of the person’s body through the desired action o Useful with older children & adults who are trying to improve complex skills, such as golfing • Verbal prompts o Words that induce a specific behavior o Instructions to describe how to perform • Gestural prompts 2 o Physical motions that the target person previously learned as SD for specific behaviors o Putting a finger to his lips means be quiet • Modeling prompts o Antecedent is the modeled action, which demonstrates how & induces the person to perform the behavior • Stimulus prompts o Altering the normal antecedent in some physical way, either by changing sth about the SD (within-stimulus prompt) or by adding another stimulus to it (extra- stimulus prompt) to ↑ the likelihood that the person will respond correctly • Pictorial prompts o Use pictures to alter the normal antecedent o Can be used for within-stimulus prompts – accentuate the distinctive feature that distinguishes 2 stimuli o A sequence of pictures to prompt each link in a complex behavioral chain • Auditory prompts o Within-stimulus prompt – change the location of the clock or the loudness of the alarm o Extra-stimulus prompt – an alarm beeping on cell phone – remind you to check your work schedule • Environmental prompts o Changes made to the physical surroundings in which the SD is presented to ↑ the likelihood that the person will respond correctly Fading = gradually removing or changing a prompt so that it becomes the normal antecedent for the behavior Re
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