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Chapter 22

Chapter 22: Doing Research in Behaviour Modification

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 22: Doing Research in Behaviour Modification 4 minimal components of behaviour modification program: (ref. ch 21) 1. Screening phase 2. Assessment phase 3. Treatment phase 4. Follow-up phase  We can’t really claim that a behavioural change during a minimal behaviour modification program was due to treatment bc the improvement might have been caused by other factors  conditions during baseline could have made one’s performance worse, and so make it look like the treatment worked  A change in one’s environment (other than the treatment) could have promoted one’s performance during treatment etc. Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design: An experimental design consisting of a baseline phase followed by a treatment phase, followed by a reversal bck to baseline conditions, and followed by a replication of the treatment phase  Used to test the effectiveness of a treatment  A = ndseline, B =treatment, hence ABAB design; aka withdrawal design bc you withdraw treatment @ 2 baseline phase.  Dependent V = the measure of behaviour. Eg) in a teacher’s treatment program for a student who performs less than other students, correctly completing Qs =measure of B and the DV  Independent V = treatment/intervention. eg) the teacher’s treatment program = the IV  Internal validity: when a study/exp demonstrates the IV caused the change in DV  External validity: when study/exp can be generalized to other behaviours, people, settings, or treatments  Do baseline phase until the performance pattern is stable or until it shows a trend in the direction OPPOSITE to that predicted when the IV is introduced  The number of reversals and replications needed depend on on how large the effect of IV is. Larger IV effect on DV = one reversal will be sufficient  Limitations :  May be undesireable to reverse to baseline conditions post-treatment.  Eg) unethical to reverse to baseline conditions when treating a child’s self-abusive behaviour  Reversal might be impossible bc of behavioural trapping  Once a shy child has been taught to interact w/ peers, this interactive b might be maintained by attention from peers  A pro golpher who hits a ball over 200 yards is unlikely to revert back to 150 yard hits. Multiple-baseline designs  Demonstrates a treatment’s effectiveness WITHOUT reversing to baseline conditions. Multiple Baseline Across Behaviours Design:  Establish baselines for 2 or more behaviours followed by treatment across all those behaviours.  record baseline of a student’s performance in math (prob solving) and language (spelling and sentence writing)  then, introduce treatment to math first, observe improvement, and then intro the treatment to spelling, then sentence writing.  Con: behaviours might not be independent. So, if a treatment is introduced to the first behaviour, and an improvement occurs in the other 2 behaviours too, then one can’t really say the treatment caused this improvement itself. Multiple baseline across situations design:  establish baselines for ONE behaviour across 2 or more situations, then introduce treatment to the behaviour across those situations.  for a child with whose imaginary friends interfere w/ peer-interactions and camp counsellors, this can be used  obtain baselines for verbalization w/ these imaginary friends during trail walks, in dining hall, cabin, and during class.  Introduce treatment (extinction program in this example) to first situation (trail walks) as other situations continued on baseline. then upon success, introduce it subsequently to next situations.  3 Cons:  Treatment in first situations might improve behaviour in all other situations, thus you can’t attribute the success confidently to the treatment itself.  We can’t generalize the treatment to other people if it is only tested on one person.  The behaviour might occur in in one situation only Multiple baseline across people design  Establish baselines for ONE behaviour across 2 or more people, then introduce treatment to the behaviour sequentially across those people.  Fawcett and Miller (1975): improved
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