Chapter 22: Doing Research in Behaviour Modification
4 minimal components of behaviour modification program: (ref. ch 21)
1. Screening phase
2. Assessment phase
3. Treatment phase
4. Follow-up phase
We can’t really claim that a behavioural change during a minimal behaviour modification program
was due to treatment bc the improvement might have been caused by other factors
conditions during baseline could have made one’s performance worse, and so make it look like
the treatment worked
A change in one’s environment (other than the treatment) could have promoted one’s
performance during treatment etc.
Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design: An experimental design consisting of a baseline phase followed
by a treatment phase, followed by a reversal bck to baseline conditions, and followed by a replication of
the treatment phase
Used to test the effectiveness of a treatment
A = ndseline, B =treatment, hence ABAB design; aka withdrawal design bc you withdraw treatment
@ 2 baseline phase.
Dependent V = the measure of behaviour. Eg) in a teacher’s treatment program for a student who
performs less than other students, correctly completing Qs =measure of B and the DV
Independent V = treatment/intervention. eg) the teacher’s treatment program = the IV
Internal validity: when a study/exp demonstrates the IV caused the change in DV
External validity: when study/exp can be generalized to other behaviours, people, settings, or
Do baseline phase until the performance pattern is stable or until it shows a trend in the direction
OPPOSITE to that predicted when the IV is introduced
The number of reversals and replications needed depend on on how large the effect of IV is. Larger
IV effect on DV = one reversal will be sufficient
May be undesireable to reverse to baseline conditions post-treatment.
Eg) unethical to reverse to baseline conditions when treating a child’s self-abusive behaviour
Reversal might be impossible bc of behavioural trapping
Once a shy child has been taught to interact w/ peers, this interactive b might be maintained
by attention from peers
A pro golpher who hits a ball over 200 yards is unlikely to revert back to 150 yard hits.
Demonstrates a treatment’s effectiveness WITHOUT reversing to baseline conditions.
Multiple Baseline Across Behaviours Design:
Establish baselines for 2 or more behaviours followed by treatment across all those behaviours.
record baseline of a student’s performance in math (prob solving) and language (spelling and
then, introduce treatment to math first, observe improvement, and then intro the treatment to
spelling, then sentence writing.
Con: behaviours might not be independent. So, if a treatment is introduced to the first behaviour, and
an improvement occurs in the other 2 behaviours too, then one can’t really say the treatment caused
this improvement itself. Multiple baseline across situations design:
establish baselines for ONE behaviour across 2 or more situations, then introduce treatment to the
behaviour across those situations.
for a child with whose imaginary friends interfere w/ peer-interactions and camp counsellors, this
can be used
obtain baselines for verbalization w/ these imaginary friends during trail walks, in dining hall,
cabin, and during class.
Introduce treatment (extinction program in this example) to first situation (trail walks) as other
situations continued on baseline. then upon success, introduce it subsequently to next situations.
Treatment in first situations might improve behaviour in all other situations, thus you can’t
attribute the success confidently to the treatment itself.
We can’t generalize the treatment to other people if it is only tested on one person.
The behaviour might occur in in one situation only
Multiple baseline across people design
Establish baselines for ONE behaviour across 2 or more people, then introduce treatment to the
behaviour sequentially across those people.
Fawcett and Miller (1975): improved