Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Jessica Dere (568)
Chapter 25

Chapter 25: Token Economies

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

Chapter 25: Token Economies Token: conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers. Token Economy: A behavioural program where an individual can earn tokens for performing desirable behaviours and can cash in the tokens for various backup reinforcers. 2 major advantages: 1. They can be given immediately after a desired behaviour and cashed in later for a backup reinforcer  Useful when there is a long delay b/w target response and backup reinforcer (occurs when reinforcing after the target b occurs is impractical or impossible. 2. Makes reinforcement easy when a group of individuals have different motivational states.  Tokens paired w/ diff backup reinforcers are generalized conditioned reinforcers. So, they don’t depend on a specific motivating operation for their strength. Initial steps in setting up a Token Economy Deciding on the target behaviours  Determined by (a) the type of individuals involved, (b) the short- and long-range objectives to be accomplished, and (c) specific behavioural problems that interfere with achieving those objectives.  Clearly define them to participants so they know what behaviours are expected and so you can reliably reinforce  The more similar a group is, the easier it is to standardize the rules concerning expected behaviours  But, Have specific reinforcement rules for individuals or, if they’re too different, assign them to special treatment groups. Taking baselines  Get this before starting the token economy  Compare data with baseline data to determine program’s effectiveness. Selecting backup reinforcers  There’s a variety of backup reinforcers to choose since you’re not limited to those that can be delivered immediately after the desired response (token economies bridges long delays b/w target behaviour and backup reinforcers)  Avoid unethical backup reinforcers- don’t plan a program that might deprive individuals of something that legally and morally belongs to them (e.g. food, water)  Choose dispensing method after choosing your backup reinforcer (a box in a classroom or a store- keep inventory of purchases) Selecting the type of token to use  Takes on any form but should be attractive, lightweight, portable, durable, easy to handle, and not easily counterfeited  Automatic dispensers of backup reinforcement should always be operational and have enough tokens  Have needed accessories for handling and storing tokens (bags, boxes, purses) Identifying available help  Help is needed in larger token economies (e.g. psychiatric facilities)  Help sources  People already assigned to work with certain individuals (nurses, TA)  Volunteers (homemakers)  Behaviourally advanced individuals w/in institutions (older students to help young)  Members of the token economy itself  With time, members assume more responsibility in achieving goals (e.g. some peers become promoted and gain authority to administer and remove tokens for peers’ performances)  Decide how to reinforce helpers’ behaviour (approval or further promotions) Choosing the locations  No specific location. Some are better than others depending on the economy type Specific implementation procedures Following procedures must be chosen and implemented prior to- and during the token economy program Keeping data: choose type of data sheets, who will record data, and when to record. The rein
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.