Textbook Notes (363,556)
Canada (158,423)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Jessica Dere (573)
Chapter 16


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 16 –TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE TEACHING STAN TO PROTECT HIMSELF • Numerous children were taught self-protection in response to strangers trying to lure the children into going to places with them (child abduction) GENERALITY • A behavior change is set to have generality when the trained behavior transfers from the training situation to the natural environment, when the training leads to the development of new behavior that has not yet been specifically trained, or when the trained behavior is maintained in the natural environment overtime • Stimulus Generalization (operant conditioning): refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation o 1. The more physically similar the 2 stimuli are, the more stimulus generalization will occur between them (similar looking berries)  This is an unlearned/inherited characteristic o 2. Stimulus generalization might occur from one stimulus to another because we have learned that the 2 stimuli are members of a common- element stimulus class (a set of stimuli that have some physical characteristics in common)  Example: a house with green shutters and a girl with green socks o 3. Stimulus generalization might occur from one stimulus to another because we have learned that the stimuli are members of an equivalence class (a set of completely dissimilar stimuli that an individual has learned to group together)  Example: the words mutt and pooch with the picture of a dog o Both common-element and stimulus-equivalence are called concepts. • Response Generalization: occurs when a behavior becomes more probable as a result of the reinforcement of another behavior Unlearned Response Generalization due to Considerable Physical Similarity of Responses • The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between them o Example: you would probably find roller blading easier to learn if you have already learned to ice skate because the responses in these two activities are similar Learned Response Generalization based on Minimal Physical Similarity of Responses • Just like there are large classes of stimuli that share a common characteristic although they differ in many other characteristics, there are also widely different responses that share a common characteristic o Where learned response generalization occurs o Example: when the stranger tried to lure Stan, he said “no I have to ask my mother” instead of what he was taught “teacher”  Here the 2 sentences are different but have a common grammatical structure and share some of the same words Learned Response Generalization due to Functionally Equivalent Responses • Functionally equivalent responses: different responses that produce the same consequences o Example: when asked to start a fire, you light a match stick, or flip a cigarette lighter o All these responses are functionally equivalent in the sense that they are likely to bring praise from various others FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMING GENERALITY OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR • When talking about generality, we distinguish 2 situations: o 1. The training situation in which the behavior is initially strengthened o 2. The target situation: a situation in which we want generality to occur (usually the natural environment) Programming Operant Stimulus Generalization • The initial occurrence of stimulus generalization depends critically on the physical similarity between the training and the target situations • The more similar the situations are, the more stimulus generalization and hence the less discrimination between them 1. Train in the Target Situation • Attempt to make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target situation in many ways o Best way to do this is to train in the target situation itself o Example: if a parent wants to teach a child how to count the correct change for purchasing bag of candy, they should do so in a candy store 2. Vary the Training Conditions • Conduct training sessions with little control over the stimuli in the presence of which correct responses are reinforced • If behaviors are brought under the control of a wider variety of stimuli during training, then the probability of some of those stimuli being present in the target situation increases 3. Program Common Stimuli • Program common stimuli deliberately by developing the behavior to specific stimuli that are present in both the training and target settings o Example: conducting a program in which social and academic classroom behaviors were taught to children in a remedial classroom. Stimulus generalization the regular academic classroom was ensured by using the same academic materials (common stimuli) in both rooms • A useful strategy for programming common stimuli is to bring the desired behavior under the control of instructions and rules that an individual can rehearse in novel situations o Example: teaching Stan a rule for running away when approached from strangers o This may lead to a desired behavior even if the stimuli in the novel settings are physically dissimilar to the stimuli present in training (occurs in a park, however training occurred in school) • When an individual is taught to emit desired behavior to a few specific stimuli in the training situation and then to take those stimuli to the target situations, the individual is using a self-mediated or verbal stimulus • Example: a girl can do a jump while figure skating, but during a competition, she always falls cause she is too excited, so she inserted the word “easy” into her routine which helped her improve her executions during competitions 4. Train Sufficient Stimulus Exemplars • This technique increases the probability of appropriate generalization to new stimuli and situations because of the large number and variety of stimuli and situations to which the training has occurred o Stan’s training occurred in several different places in the school yard and with several different lures • General case programming: a variation of training sufficient stimulus exemplars o With this approach the teacher begins by identifying the range of relevant stimulus situations to which a learner will be expected to respond and the response variations may be required  Example: used this approach to teach adolescents with developmental disabilities how to use different vending machines  Extremely effective approach Programming Operant Response Generalization 1. Train Sufficient Response Exemplars • Training sufficient response exemplars: a strategy for programming response generalization in order to establish stimulus generalization o Example: a girl with developmental disability is taught how to say plural nouns. With prompting and reinforcing, they first taught her how to say the singular and the plural forms when presented with the respective number of objects. T
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