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Psychology (9,697)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 15

CHAPTER 15 –RESPONDANT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 15 –RESPONDANT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER RESPONDING TO MEET DEADLINES • Leaving term papers till the last minute and feeling stressed and anxiety builds, but after a few late nights in a row, a weight is lifted off your shoulders OPERANT-RESPONDENT INTERACTIONS • Any given experience is likely to include both respondent and operant conditioning occurring concurrently • Rick had been punished previously for not meeting the deadlines which elicited feelings on anxiety (respondent) • As a consequence, stimuli associated with missing the deadline were likely CSs eliciting anxiety as a CR in Rick • The closer to the deadline, the stronger the association between CSs and meeting the deadline, hence the stronger reaction of anxiety (CR) • The relevant responses (taking notes, doing research) are operant responses • As these responses occurred, Rick realized he would meet the deadline and his anxiety decreases • Thus, stimuli associated with the deadline likely cause rick to feel anxious (respondent response) and responding to meet the deadline (operant response), were maintained by the negative reinforcement of the decrease in Ricks anxiety • Page 181/182 for diagram RESPONDENT AND OPERANT COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS • Examine the role of respondent and operant conditioning in 4 areas: o 1. The reaction that one feels during the experience of the emotion (such as butterflies in tummy) o 2. The way that one learns to outwardly express or disguise an emotion (such as clasping hands to hide nervousness) o 3. How one becomes aware of and describes one’s emotions (I’m nervous as apposed to I’m angry) o 4. Some causes of emotions Respondent Component: Our Feelings • Involves primarily 3 classes: reflexes of the digestive system, the circulatory system, and the respiratory system • Reflexes are controlled by autonomic nervous system • Some skeletal reflexes are respondent behaviors • Tickling, gently rocking and patting are USs for the URs of smiling, and gurgling, labeled as happiness • Ex: the experiment conducted on Albert, experimenters demonstrated respondent conditioning of emotions (fear). Albert had not shown any fear for white rats, but when continuously paired with a starling sound, Albert began to show fear for the rat before the sound, as well as fear for rabbits and puppies, whom shared similar features as the rabbit Operant Components: Our Actions, Descriptions and Awareness • Albert also showed operant fear responses o When the white rat was presented, he crawled away as fast as he could • The operant component of emotions depends on each individual • As we grow up, people around us teach us how to label our emotions • By age 9, children can recognize the emotions in them and in others • When labeling emotions, we don’t always have access to the emotion- causing events, the inner feelings, and the relevant operant behaviors o T
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