Textbook Notes (363,212)
Canada (158,271)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Jessica Dere (573)
Chapter 12


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 12 – ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT • Ben was an extremely disturbed child who had habit of hitting people. In order to stop his behavior people punished him every time he hit someone; his abusive behavior eventually stopped • Punisher is a stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behavior causes that behavior to decrease in frequency (punishers are often referred as aversive stimuli or aversive) • Punishment: if someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher then that person is less likely to do the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation. • Punishment simply means application of an immediate consequence following an individual’s specific behavior in a specific situation that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that individual engaging in that specific behavior in that specific situation • Like positive reinforcement, punishment affects learning; touching hot stove will prevent you from doing it again; pain from falls help with better balance TYPES OF PUNISHERS Pain-Inducing Punisher • Pain-inducing punisher: AKA physical punisher is a stimulus immediately following a behavior that activates pain receptors or other sense receptors that evoke feelings of discomfort; ex. Spanking, pinching, tickling, etc. • Such stimuli or events called unconditioned punishers, which are stimuli that are punishing without prior learning Reprimand • Reprimand is a strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behavior; parent say something is bad immediately after a child does it • Conditioned punisher: punisher paired with another punisher Timeout • Timeout: a period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers. • There are two types of timeout: exclusionary and nonexclusionary • Exclusionary: consisting of removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behavior; timeout room • Non-exclusionary timeout: consists of intruding into the situation immediately following a behavior, a stimulus with less reinforcement; children wearing a ribbon and having it removed when child was bad Response Cost • Response cost: removal of specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a behavior; ex. Library fines, parking fines, charges and not applied immediately following the offending behavior FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT 1. The Conditions for a Desirable Alternative Response • To decrease an undesirable response, it is effective to increase some desirable alternative response that will compete with the undesirable behavior to be eliminates 2. Cause of the Undesirable Behavior • To maximize the opportunity for desirable alternative behavior to occur, anyone attempting a punishment procedure should also minimize the causes of undesirable behavior. • Person should first identify and eliminate current S^Ds for the undesirable behavior, second person should try to identify and eliminate reinforcers that are maintaining the undesirable behavior 3. The Punishing Stimulus • If punishment is being used it is important to be sure that the punisher is effective; the more intense or strong punishment the more effective it will be in decreasing the undesirable behavior • The intensity of punisher depends on the success of minimizing causes of undesirable behavior; some people can be reinforced with milder punishments while other cant 4. Antecedent (Including Verbal Rules) for Punishment • Asking parents for something when they are in bad mood cause reprimand • Parent can punish children by either taking something away from them or not giving them certain things 5. Delivery of the Punisher GUIDELINES FOLLOWED TO INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT WHEN DELIVERING IT: • Guideline 1: The punisher should be presented immediately following the undesirable behavior. o If the punisher is delayed, a more desirable behavior may occur prior to the use of the punisher, ad this behavior may be suppressed to a much greater extent than the undesirable behavior. o The classic example is when the mother who asks her husband after he returns home from work to punish their child, who has misbehaved earlier in the day • Guideline 2: The punisher should be presented following every instance of the undesirable behavior. o Two reasons for behavior modifiers being unable to detect most instances of the behavior to be punished: o First, occasions in which a behavior modifier is unable to detect instances of the undesirable behavior may be occasion sin which the undesirable behavior is positively reinforced, which would maintain its strength o Second, punishment procedures have negative side effects and it may be unethical to implement a procedure that may not be effective when that procedure also has negative side effects • Guideline 3: The delivery of the punisher should not be pair with positive reinforcement o If a child has received a lot of loving attention from an adult during a period of time prior to the occurrence of the undesired behavior and the adult immediately presents a strong verbal reprimand following the undesirable behavior, the verbal reprimand is likely to be punishing. o However, if that reprimand is the only adult attention that the child has received for an extended period of time, it will reinforce the undesirable behavior. • Guideline 4: The person administering the punisher should remain calm when doing so o A calm, matter-of-fact approach helps ensure that a punishment program will be followed consistently an
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