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Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 2


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Jessica Dere

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Chapter 2: Behavior Modification PSYB45 Areas of Application: An Overview Parenting & Child Management - In addition to meeting children’s basic needs, parents are totally responsible for their children’s initial behavioral development, which is shared by teachers and others - Behavioral techniques are used to help parents teach their children to walk, develop language skills, toilet train or influence children to do household chores - Parents have also been taught behavioral strategies for decreasing problem behaviors such as nail biting, temper tantrums, aggressive behaviors and arguing - Clinical Psychologists are sometimes needed to help parents treat their child’s problem Education: Preschool to University - Applications in elementary school have been designed to change student behaviors that were disruptive or incompatible with academic learning - Other applications have involved modifying academic behavior directly, in class settings - Regarding physical education, progress has been made such as development of reliable observations for monitoring the behavior of physical education teachers and students, increase in acceptance by teachers and school administrators of behavioral teaching skills and increased acceptance of behavioral strategies to help physical educators manage a variety of behavioral difficulties of students - An important innovation in behavioral approaches to teaching is the Personalized System of Instructions (PSI) by Fred Keller. The approach has distinct characteristics such as 1. Identifies the target behaviors or learning requirements 2. Requires student to study small portions of material to grasp material 3. Has frequent tests 4. Has master criteria, student must master one level before moving onto next 5. Student is not penalized for answering wrong 6. Motivates student and incorpororates a go at your own pace Chapter 2: Behavior Modification PSYB45 Developmental Disabilities - Two types of atypical developments that have received special attention from behavior modifiers are intellectual disabilities and autism - Developmental disability is a disability that is attributed to a mental or physical impairment or combination of mental and physical impairments, is manifested before the person turns 22, is likely to continue indefinitely, results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activity: self care, expressive language, learning, mobility, self direction, capacity of individual living, economic self sufficiency, reflects persons need for a combination of special, interdisciplinary or generic care, treatment or other services which are of life long or extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated - Intellectual Disability: characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual. Social and practical adaptive skills - This disability originates before the age of 18 years old - Limited intellectual functioning is an IQ score that is at least 2 standard deviations below the mean of an appropriate assessment instrument. This includes 2.3% of the population - Three forces materialized during the 1960s and 70s that collectively revolutionized the education of person with intellectual disability 1. Individuals called normalization advocates, such as wolfenberger who argues that person with intellectual disability should be helped to lead the most normative lives possible and that traditional large institutions were simply not normative. This lead to community living options 2. Comprised civil rights with advocates and parents of persons with intellectual disabilities who secured he legal right of the individuals with severe disabilities to receive normal education 3. Technology that made it possible to dramatically improve the behaviors of a person with severe and profound intellectual disabilities - Autism: children with autism are likely to show combination of impaired social behavior, impaired communication, abnormal play behavior and r repetitive self stimulatory behaviors Chapter 2: Behavior Modification
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