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Canada (158,327)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Jessica Dere (573)
Chapter 7


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 7 Differential reinforcement: Applying reinforcement to a correct response, and no reinforcement when there is no correct response Several different possible applications More complex than simple reinforcement A case of using reinforcement to decrease or eliminate behaviours? Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates: - Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL): Reinforcer is presented only if a particular response occurs at a low rate only used for tolerable behaviour - Limited-responding DRL: Specifies a maximum number of responses that are allowed during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occur useful when the conditions hold that: some of the behaviour is tolerable but less of it is better Ex: Telling a child that if he gets out of his seat 3 or fewer times in an hour, he will get play time - Spaced-responding DRL: Specified behaviour cannot occur during certain time interval; after interval has passed, the behaviour must occur for reinforcement instances of a behaviour must be spaced out over time useful when the behaviour wanted to reduce is actually desirable provided that It doesn’t occur too much eg: a student who always yells out the answer in class deprives others to participate as well eg: reinforcing of slow speech in a student that talks too fast Ex: Getting an eager student to only provide an answer every 15 minutes (allowing others to speak in class too) Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding: - Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DRO): Reinforcer is presented only if a target behaviour does not occur during a specified time interval If the behaviour occurs, the clock starts over Also called “differential reinforcement of other responding” The length of the time interval should be increased gradually Examples:Reducing nail biting; Reducing self-injurious behaviours Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviour: - Differential reinforcement of incompatible responding (DRI): Like DRO, but specifies an incompatible alternative behaviour The undesirable behaviour is literally not possible when engaged in the incompatible behaviour Reinforcement is given for the incompatible behaviour e.g: reinforcing sitting in a chair to reduce running around the classroom Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour: - Differential reinforce
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