Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Psychology (9,568)
PSYB45H3 (1,059)
Jessica Dere (571)
Chapter 8


5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 8 – DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS GENERALIZATION Learning to respond at the right time and place • Behavior is strongly influenced by its consequences o If it’s reinforced, it increases o If it isn’t reinforced, it decreases • Behavior is only valuable IF it occurs at the right times and in appropriate situations o Ex: stopping at an intersection when the lights turn red, but not while the lights are green • To learn this successfully, we must understand that there are always other people, places, or things that are around when behavior is reinforced or extinguished o Ex: Johnny is playing outside with his friends, and their laughter and attention are likely to reinforce his swearing. However, when Johnny is sitting at the dinner table with Grandma and Grandpa, his swearing is NOT likely to be reinforced, and most probably even punished. After several experiences, the people and things that were around during reinforcement and extinction come to cue Johnny’s behavior. • Any situation in which behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of 3 sets of events: a. The stimuli that exists just prior to the occurrence of the behavior, called antecedent stimuli (such as the presence of friends or the dinner table at Grandma and Grandpa’s house just before Johnny swore) b. The behavior itself (Johnny’s swearing) c. The consequences of the behavior (either approval from Johnny’s friends or disapproval from Grandma and Grandpa) • Stimuli: are the people, objects and events currently present in one’s intermediate surroundings that impinge on ones sense receptors and that can affect behavior • Any stimulus can be either an antecedent or a consequence of behavior • ABC (antecedents, behavior, consequences) assessment: a test used to identify the antecedents and consequences of behavior. • When a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a particular stimulus but not others, that antecedent stimulus begins to exert control over the occurrence of that behavior • Stimulus control: refers to the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response. • Good/Effective stimulus control: refers to a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response; that is, when the stimulus occurs, the response will follow o Ex: signs that say LOOK AT THE TEACHER exerted good stimulus control over the student’s behavior of paying attention Types of controlling stimuli: S and SΔ • Discriminative stimulus (S ): is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. It is a cue that a particular response will pay off. o Also referred to as “stimulus for reinforcement” • SΔ: is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced. It is a cure that a particular response will NOT pay off. o Also referred to as “stimulus for extinction” (An instance of positive reinforcement) D 1. S  Response  Reinforcer (Other kids) (Swearing) (Approval of kids) (An instance of extinction) 2. SΔ  Response  No reinforcer (Grandma and Grandpa) (Swearing) (No positive attention) • A stimulus can simultaneously be an S for one response and an SΔ for another; that is, in the presence of a particular stimulus, one response may be reinforced while the other may not be reinforced. o Ex: *female washroom sign: the sign is an S for females to enter and an SΔ for males to enter. • Stimulus discrimination training: refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in he presence of an S and extinguishing that response in the presence of an SΔ • After stimulus discrimination training, the effects are: 1) Good stimulus control: a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response 2) Stimulus discrimination: a response occurs to an S not an SΔ • Stimulus generalization: refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation. o Instead of discriminating between two stimuli and responding differently to them, an individual responds in the same way to the two different stimuli. o Opposite of stimulus discrimination Reasons for the occurrence for stimulus generalization: 1) Unlearned stimulus generalization due to considerable physical similarity  People and animals are likely to perform a behavior in a new situation if it is similar to the one in which they learned the behavior o Ex: A child learns that a large, hairy, four-legged creature is a ‘doggie’. When a child sees a different type of large dog, he still knows to refer to it as a ‘doggie’.  Humans have evolved so that the more physically similar the two st
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.