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Psychology (9,697)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 9


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Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 9 - Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading Teaching Peter his name • Peter, diagnosed with autism had extensive vocal mimicking repertoire. • Could only repeat words people said but after reinforcement she was able to ask him his name and get his response Fading • Fading is the gradual change over successive trials od an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus. For eg. When saying, “Peter” and making Peter repeat and then changing it to “what’s your name and he responds with “Peter.” If Peter was asked who is that instead of what his name is he wouldn’t be able to answer. • Fading involves many everyday situations in which a person teacher a behavior to another person • Parents fade out help and support when teaching their children something; the more you learn the less instructions you will need • Fading useful in any situation where a stimulus exerts strong control over a response • Errorless discrimination training (errorless learning): the use of a fading procedure to establish stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur. • Discovery of fading techniques have led to some changes in educators’ views regarding the learning process. • At one point it was believed that people had to make mistakes while learning in order to know what not to do next time; however errorless transfer of discrimination can occur which has at least 3 advantages over procedures involving trial and error. 1) Errors consume valuable time, 2) errors can occur many times more, 3) nonreinforcement that occurs when errors are being distinguished often produces emotional side effects such as tantrums, aggressive behavior and attempts to escape from the situation • Fading procedures used in many learning situations to help people with developmental disabilities and young children • Fading can be used to teach tracing, copying and drawing shapes (eg, circles, lines, squares, triangles), numericals and letters of the alphabet • To teach a child to draw a circle one must circles on paper and trace it consistently till the child receives reinforce and does it to • Once a child learns to trace, they can be taught to draw or copy too Dimensions of Stimulus for Fading • Dimension of a stimulus is any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum. • Fading occurs along dimensions of stimuli FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FADING 1. The Final Desired Stimulus • The final desired stimulus should be chosen carefully; important to select it so that the occurrence of the response to that particular stimulus is likely to be maintained in the natural environment. Some fading programs make error of stopping with a stimulus that does not include some aspect of the situation that the learner will frequently encounter in the natural environment. Others asking peter what his name was would not get the right response because unlike veronica they didn’t mouth his name after the question. 2. The Starting Stimulus: A Prompt • At the beginning of fading program, it is important to select a starting stimulus that reliably evokes the desired behavior. Prompt: a supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a desired behavior will occur, but that is not the final desires stimulus
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