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Psychology (9,695)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 13


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Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 13: Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Curing Jason’s slouching • Model employee, but slouching while he worked presented as inappropriate for psychiatric patients at hospital • Jason told to wear a shoulder harness that held an elastic cord across his back • If Jason slouched, the cord stretched creating a clicking sound • He slouched 60% of the time, after he slouched only 1% of the time • Three behavior principles in Jason’s Case: escape, avoidance, punishment Escape Conditioning • Escape Conditioning, E.C, (Negative conditioning): states removal of certain stimuli (averse stimuli) immediately after the occurrence of a behavior will increase likelihood of that behavior • Example: removal of loud tone following response of fixing posture increased Jason’s probability to maintain good posture each time tone was presented • Similar to punishment, both involve use of aversive stimulus • Differ procedurally in terms of both antecedents and consequences of behavior • Antecedents, aversive stimulus (loud tone: Jason) used in E.C must be present prior to escape response • Aversive stimulus (punisher) is not present prior to response that is punished • In regards to consequences, E.C removes aversive stimulus ASAP following response whereas E.C procedure Increases likelihood of target response • Negative indicates= strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to removal (taking away) of an aversive stimulus • Bright light= learned to escape it by closing or squinting eyes • Room cold= putting on an extra sweater • Room hot= turning fan or A.C on • Streetcar repairing outside room= close window to escape noise Avoidance Conditioning • Escape conditioning disadvantage= aversive stimulus must be present for desired response to occur • Jason: Loud tone on before he showed good posture • E.C not final for maintaining behavior but more of preparatory training for avoidance conditioning; Jason influenced by avoidance behavior after he had demonstrated escape behavior • Avoidance Conditioning: contingency in which a behaviour prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring thereby resulting in an increase in frequency of that behaviour • During avoidance procedure with Jason, good posture prevented tone • Similarities: involve use of an aversive stimulus, with both likelihood of behaviour increases • Difference1) E.C removes aversive stimulus that already occurred while avoidance response prevents an aversive stimulus to occur at all • Example: Person you dislike comes in front of you and starts talking to you, you tell them you are busy and have to go escape conditioning where aversive stimulus was there and you responded to escape from it Next day, you see the person you dislike coming out of the store, you duck and walk the other way, the person doesn’t see you  avoidance conditioning where you avoided the aversive stimulus overall • Difference 2) latter involves a: • Warning Stimulus (Conditioned aversive stimulus): stimulus that signals a forthcoming aversive stimulus • Example: sight of person disliked distance away was warning signal, ducked to avoid person; clicking sound when Jason slouched was warning regarding the tone which would sound 3 seconds later • Discriminated avoidance conditioning: avoidance conditioning which includes a warning signal that enables person to discriminate a forthcoming aversive stimulus • Jason wearing t
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