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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 4 ReinforcementReinforcement is process in which behavior is strengthened by immediate consequence Consequence the stimulus or event occurring immediately after a behaviour When behavior is strengthened more likely to occur again in futureThorndikes demonstration of reinforcementoPlaced hungry cat in cage and put food outside cage where cat could seeoDoor opens if cat hits a leveroEach time it took less time for cat to get food Each time the cat was more likely to hit the lever with its paw because this behaviour had an immediate consequenceoCalled this law of effectBF SkinneroConducted studies on principles of reinforcement in lab animals like rats and pigeonsoPlaced an animal in an experimental chamber and delivered a pellet of food when a lever located on one of the walls of the chamberoEach time the rat pressed the lever it received a pellet of foodoRat was ore likely to press the lever each time it was placed in the chamberReinforcementWhen behavior results in favorable outcome behavior is more likely to be repeated in future in similar circumstances SulzerAzaroff and Mayer reinforcement may occur naturally as result of our daytoday interactions with our social and physical environment Reinforcement is defined as1 Occurrence of particular behavior2 Followed by immediate consequence3 That results in strengthening of behavior A behaviour is strengthened when there is an increase in its frequency duration intensity or speed decreased latencyOperant behavior behavior that is strengthened through process of reinforcement OB acts on environment to produce consequence and is controlled by or occurs again in the future as result of immediate consequenceReinforcer consequence that strengthens operant behavior Liberman Measured duration of rational talk during conversations with nursesoWanted to reinforce rational talk so that it would increase and
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