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Chapter 4

PSYB45 Chapter 4 Detailed notes

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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 4ReinforcementReinforcement is process in which behavior is strengthened by immediate consequenceConsequence reliably follows the occurrenceWhen behavior is strengthened more likely to occur again in futureThorndikeoPlaced hungry cat in cage and put food outside cage where cat could seeoRigged cage so door would open if cat hit leveroEach time it took less time for cat to get outoCalled this law of effectBF SkinneroConducted numerous studies on principles of reinforcement in lab animals like rats and pigeonsDefining Reinforcement When behavior results in favorable outcome behavior is more likely to be repeated in future in similar circumstancesAlthough principle of reinforcement was first systematically illustrated in lab animals reinforcement is natural process that also influences human behaviorSulzerAzaroff and MayeroReinforcement may occur naturally as result of our daytoday interactions with our social and physical environmentReinforcement is defined aso1 Occurrence of particular behavioro2 Followed by immediate consequenceo3 That results in strengthening of behavior person is more likely to engage in behavior again in futureOperant behavior behavior that is strengthened through process of reinforcementoActs on environment to produce consequence and is controlled by or occurs again in future as result of immediate consequenceReinforcer consequence that strengthens operant behaviorLibermanoMeasured duration of rational talk during conversations with nursesoWanted to reinforce rational talk so that it would increase and schizophrenic patients would appear more normalPositiveNegative ReinforcementPositive reinforcemento1 Occurrence of a behavioro2 Followed by addition of stimulus reinforcer or an increase in intensity of stimuluso3 Which results in strengthening of behaviorNegative reinforcemento1 Occurrence of behavioro2 Followed by removal of stimulus aversive stimulus or decrease in intensity of stimuluso3 Results in strengthening of behaviorStimulus object or event that can be detected by one of sense and has potential to influence personoObject or event may be feature of physical environment or social environmentPositive reinforcer stimulus that is presented or that appears after behaviorAversive stimulus in negative reinforcement stimulus that is removed or avoided after behaviorEssential difference is that
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