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Chapter 9

PSYB45 Chapter 9 Detailed notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 9ShapingDefining ShapingShaping develop target behavior that person doesnt currently exhibitDifferential reinforcement shaping is defined as this Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until person exhibits target behavioroInvolves basic principles of reinforcement and extinctionoOccurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors are not reinforced in particular situationoResultbehavior that is reinforced increases and behaviors that are not reinforced decrease through extinctionSuccessive approximations shaping is used to develop languageoSteps include babbling word sounds part words whole words strings of words and sentences oStarting behaviorfirst approximations To begin identify existing behavior that is anapproximation of target behavioroReinforce behavior and as result person starts to exhibit behavior more oftenoStop reinforcing behavior and as part of subsequent extinction burst novel behaviors typically begin to appearoStart reinforcing novel behavior that is a closer approximation to target behavioroProcess continues until person finally exhibits target behaviorSkinneroUsed shaping to get lab rats to press lever in an experimental chamberApplications of ShapingGetting Mrs F to Walk AgainoMrs F was 75 year old woman who had hip replacement surgeryoTo walk indepen
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