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PSYB45H3 (1,081)


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Zachariah Campbell

REINFORCEMENT Chapter4Reinforcement is the process in which a behavior is strengthened by the The consequence that strengthens an operant behavior is called Reinforcer immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurrence Thorndike 1911POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENTHungry cat in a cage and put food outside the cage Rigged the cage so that the door would open if the cat hit the levelTwo types of reinforcement with its pawA Positive reinforcementEventually the cat accidently hit the leverB Negative reinforcementEach time the cat hit the lever it look less time Both processes strengthen a behaviorboth increase the Law of Effect probability that the behavior will occur in the futureGetting the food was the consequence that reinforcedstrengthened the cats behavior of hitting the lever with a paw Positive Reinforcement Skinner 1930 1 The occurrence of a behaviorConducted many studies on the principle of reinforcement in 2 Followed by the addition of a stimulus a Reinforcer or an increase in laboratory animals eg rats and pigeons the intensity of a stimulus3 Results in the strengthening of the behavior DEFINING REIENFORCEMENT Negative Reinforcement When a behavior results in a favorable outcome that behavior is more likelyto be repeated in the future in similar circumstances 1 The occurrence of a behavior2 Followed by the removal of a stimulus an aversive stimulus or a Reinforcement is defined as follows decrease in the intensity of a stimulus3 Which results in the strengthening of the behavior1 The occurrence of a particular behavior2 Is followed by an immediate consequence A stimulus is an object or event that can be detected by one of the senses 3 Results in the strengthening of the behavior increase in its and thus has the potential to influence the person may be a feature of the frequency duration intensity or speed physical or social environment Operant behaviorA behavior that Is strengthened through the process of In positive Reinforcement reinforcementacts on the environment to produce a consequence Stimuli Positive Reinforcersomething pleasant desirablevaluable that a person will try to get
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