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Canada (158,169)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 8 Respondent Conditioning Operant behaviors controlled by their consequences Operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences Respondent behaviors controlled by antecedent stimuli Respondent consequences involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Defining Respondent Conditioning Unconditioned responses (UR) elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have survival value A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is present Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with a US as a result, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to the UR A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioningPavlovian conditioning Pavlov showed that dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in their mouths (US will elicit a UR); then presented a NS (the sound of a metronome) just before he put the meat powder in the dogs mouth he presented the sound and meat powder together a number of times; then, presented metronome by itself found that dog salivated to the sound of the metronome without the meat powder in its mouth; sound of metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meat powder Any stimulus can become a CS is paired a number of times with a US Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus The timing of the NS and US is important if respondent conditioning is to occur The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS increases likelihood that NS will become CS www.notesolution.com
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