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Behavior Modification.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Behavior ModificationChapter 4ReinforcementReinforcement is the process by which behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows it occurrence Ex The cat example with Thorndikeo When the cat was hungry it was more likely to hit the lever because the behavior had resulted in an immediate consequence escaping the cage and getting foodEx Skinner conducted studies on the principle of reinforcement with animals such as rates and pigeons o Each time the hungry rat pressed the lever the device automatically delivered a pellet of foodo The behavior of pressing the lever increased the frequency relative to all other behaviors the rat had exhibited when put in the chamberDefining Reinforcement When behavior results in a favorable outcome that behavior is more likely to be repeated in the future in similar circumstances It may occur naturally as a part of our daytoday plans or may be planned Reinforcement is defined aso The occurrence of a particular behavior o Followed by the immediate consequenceo Results in the strengthening of the behavior Behavior is strengthened when there is an increase in one of the four dimensionsStrengthenoperant behavioracts on the environment to produce a consequence and in turn is controlled by or occurs again in the future as a result of the immediate consequenceThe consequence is called the reinforceEx A child cries at night to get her parents attention reinforceThe frequency of the behavior is low during baseline and rises as the behavior is reinforced Duration ex Wanted to increase rational talk of schizophrenic patientswas reinforced by the nurses giving more attention and oneonone chatso At the same time delusional talk was not reinforcedYou can reinforce behavior BUT not reinforce a person Positive and Negative Reinforcement BOTH are processes that strengthen behavior and both increase the probability that the behavior will occur in the future Postiveo The occurrence of the behavior
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