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Behavior Modification ch8.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Behavior ModificationChapter 8Respondent ConditioningOperant behaviors are controlled by their consequences operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences Respondent behaviors are controlled by antecedent stimuli and respondent conditioning involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuliExamples of Respondent ConditioningCarla works in a factory where each time the machine stamped the plastic on a toy a short blast of air hit Carla in the face Carla began to blink each time the machine stamped a part The maintenance crew fixed the machine Carla noticed that she continued to blink even after but it went away after a few days Carlas blinking is an example of a respondent behavior elicited by the antecedent stimulus of a blast in the air Because the clicking sound came right before the blast air each time Carlas blinking was conditioned to occur at the clicking soundDefining Respondent Conditioning Certain types of stimuli elicit types of bodily responses Ex Infants engage in sucking responses when an object such a nipple touches their lips Ex The pupil of the eye constricts on exposure to bright light These responses are called unconditioned responsesthese responses occur even though no conditioning or learning has occurred Occurs when a unconditioned stimulus is presented Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have a survival value A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is presentRespondant conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a USthe pairing is conditioned and elicits a conditioned responses The UR or CR is called a respondent behavior Respondant conditioning is called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioningo Ivan Pavlov showed that dogs salivate when meat powder is placed in their mouthso Just before he put the meat powder in their mouth he presented the sound of the metronomeo After this he sounded the metronome by itself and found that the dog salivated to the sound without the meat powder in the moutho The sound became a CS because it was paired with the meat powder USIdentify the US UR CS and CR in the example of the Carla in the toy factoryo The US is the blast of air in her faceo The UR is the blinkingo Because the clicking sound of the machine was paired with the blast air it became a CR o Note that the blinking is a CR when elicited by the CS but was initially a UR for the USTiming of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus
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