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Zachariah Campbell

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POSITIVE PUNISHMENT PROCEDURES AND THE ETHICS OF PUNISHMENT Chapter18This chapter describes the use of positive punishment procedures to decrease problem behaviorsIn positive punishment aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior Result is a decrease in the future probability of the behavior Functional and nonaversive treatment approaches should always be used before punishment is considered and reinforcement procedures should always be used in conjunction with punishmentTwo major categories of aversive events are used in positive punishment procedures 1 Application of aversive activities 2 Application of aversive stimulationApplication of Aversive ActivitiesContingent on the problem behavior the child was made to engage in an aversive activityAs a result the problem behavior was less likely to occur in the futureAn aversive activity is a lowprobability behavior the person typically would not choose to engage inEg Alisonaversive activity was cleaning the walls Eg Simonrepeated practice of getting out of bed and going to the bathroom This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack principlewhich states that when the requirement to engage in a lowprobability behavior aversive activity is made contingent on the occurrence of a highprobability behavior the problem behavior the high probability behavior will decrease in the future Although an aversive stimulus is an environmental even that can be a punisher an aversive activity is a behavior that can be a punisher for another behaviorWhen applying an aversive activity as a positive punisher he change agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity immediately contingent on the problem behaviorOvercorrection Overcorrection is a procedure developed to decrease aggressive and disruptive behavior exhibited by people with intellectual disabilities in institutional settingsIn overcorrection the client is required to engage in an effortful behavior for an extended period contingent on each instance of the problem behaviorThere are two forms of overcorrectionPositive Practice and Restitution Positive Practice Client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behavior contingent on an instance of the problem behaviorClient engages in the correct behavior with physical guidance if necessary for an extended period or until the correct behavior has been repeated a number of timeOvercorrection bc client has to engage in correct behavior many times inpractice RestitutionProcedure in which contingent on each instance of the problem behavior the client must correct the environmental effects of problem behavior and restore the environment to a condition better than that which existed before the problem behaviorPhysical guidance is used as needed to get the client to engage in the restitution activities Contingent ExerciseAnother positive punishment procedure involving the application of aversive activities
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